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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcomes

From: Comparison of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and standard of care in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia: an opportunistic retrospective analysis

Outcomes Total
n = 80
Standard of care
n = 22
Lopinavir/ritonavir
n = 20
Hydroxychloroquine
n = 38
p value
Treatment escalation after day 1 until day 28, n (%) 34 (43) 9 (41) 10 (50) 15 (39) 0.731
Intubation, n (%) 8 (10) 2 (9) 1 (5) 5 (13) 0.607
ECMO, n (%) 13 (16) 4 (18) 4 (20) 5 (13) 0.766
Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 19 (24) 4 (18) 8 (40) 7 (18) 0.143
Time between ICU admission and treatment escalation, days 5 (3–7) 6 (4–9) 5 (3–8) 3 (2–7) 0.441
Ventilator-free days at day 28 7 (0–22) 0 (0–23) 9 (0–16) 9 (0–23) 0.546
14-day mortality, n (%) 22 (28) 9 (41) 5 (25) 8 (21) 0.242
28-day mortality, n (%) 25 (31) 9 (41) 7 (35) 9 (24) 0.350
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as absolute value (%) and continuous variables as median (IQR). p values are given for the comparison between groups of treatment
  2. IQR interquartile range, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit