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Table 1 Patient’s characteristics upon intensive care unit admission (first 24 h)

From: Comparison of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and standard of care in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia: an opportunistic retrospective analysis

  Total
n = 80
Standard of care
n = 22
Lopinavir/ritonavir
n = 20
Hydroxychloroquine
n = 38
p value
Age, year 57 (53–68) 63 (54–70) 55 (49–61) 59 (53–66) 0.109
Male gender, n (%) 64 (80) 18 (82) 15 (75) 31 (82) 0.812
BMI, kg/m2 29 (26–32) 28 (26–31) 30 (28–33) 27 (25–32) 0.261
SAPS2 33 (25–40) 32 (27–39) 33 (29–41) 33 (24–40) 0.758
SOFA 7 (4–9) 7 (4–10) 7 (3–10) 7 (4–8) 0.797
Symptoms duration prior ICU, days 8 (6–11) 9 (7–14) 8 (6–10) 9 (7–12) 0.100
Comorbidities
 Active smoking, n (%) 4 (5) 2 (9) 1 (5) 1 (3) 0.542
 Chronic hypertension, n (%) 30 (38) 9 (41) 11 (55) 10 (26) 0.093
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 21 (26) 6 (27) 6 (30) 9 (24) 0.866
 Chronic respiratory disease, n (%) 10 (13) 6 (27) 2 (10) 2 (5) 0.042
 Chronic cardiac disease, n (%) 16 (20) 6 (27) 2 (10) 8 (21) 0.367
 Immunosuppression, n (%) 9 (11) 2 (9) 2 (10) 5 (13) 0.873
Clinical variables
 Temperature ≥ 38.5 °C, n (%) 20 (25) 3 (14) 6 (30) 11 (29) 0.677
 Respiratory rate, min−1 30 (24–35) 30 (27–38) 25 (20–30) 31 (25–37) 0.008
 Mean arterial blood pressure, mmHg 69 (59–82) 61 (55–74) 65 (60–82) 73 (61–83) 0.072
Biological variables
 Lymphocyte count, 10−9/l 0.82 (0.63–1.19) 0.82 (0.56–0.99) 1.12 (0.67–1.41) 0.76 (0.58–1.17) 0.261
 Creatinine, μmol l−1 87 (67–118) 91 (72–138) 78 (66–108) 86 (62–109) 0.387
 PaO2/FiO2, mmHg 130 (101–178) 134 (101–172) 172 (112–230) 127 (100–159) 0.221
Respiratory support within 24 h
 Invasive mechanical ventilation, n (%) 56 (70) 15 (68) 16 (80) 25 (66) 0.520
 High flow nasal oxygenation, n (%) 9 (11) 4 (18) 0 (0) 5 (13) 0.155
 Oxygen mask, n (%) 15 (19) 3 (14) 4 (20) 8 (21) 0.767
Organ support within 24 h      
 Vasopressors, n (%) 44 (55) 13 (59) 12 (60) 19 (50) 0.693
Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (3) 0.640
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as absolute value (%) and continuous variables as median (IQR). p values are given for the comparison between groups of treatment
  2. IQR, interquartile range, BMI body mass index, SAPS2 Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment, ICU intensive care unit