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Table 1 Patient characteristics at baseline

From: The effect of dexmedetomidine on vasopressor requirements in patients with septic shock: a subgroup analysis of the Sedation Practice in Intensive Care Evaluation [SPICE III] Trial

Variable DEX (n = 44) Usual care (n = 39) p value
Study site—no. (%)    0.77
 Australia 20 (45.5) 19 (48.7)  
 Switzerland 24 (54.5) 20 (51.3)  
Age (years)—mean ± SD 67.7 ± 12.4 62.9 ± 16.8 0.14
Male sex—no. (%) 29 (65.9) 28 (71.8) 0.56
Weight (kg)—mean ± SD 80.6 ± 17.7 85.3 ± 31.4 0.39
APACHE II score—mean ± SD 24.9 ± 6.7 25.3 ± 7.0 0.77
Chronic health conditions—no.(%)
 Diabetes mellitus treated with insulin 4 (9.1) 2 (5.1) 0.68
 Chronic hemodialysis 1 (2.3) 1 (2.6) > 0.99
 Liver cirrhosis 1 (2.3) 1 (2.6) > 0.99
 Portal hypertension 1 (2.3) 3 (7.7) 0.34
 Immunosuppression by disease 1 (2.3) 2 (5.1) 0.60
 Immunosuppression by therapy 2 (4.5) 3 (7.7) 0.66
ICU admission source—no. (%)    0.91
 Emergency department 13 (29.5) 13 (33.3)  
 Hospital ward 18 (40.9) 13 (33.3)  
 Operating room 7 (15.9) 9 (23.1)  
 Another ICU 1 (2.6) 1 (2.3)  
 Other hospitals 5 (11.4) 3 (7.7)  
Surgical admission—no. (%) 8 (18.2) 10 (25.6) 0.41
Primary site of infection—no. (%)
 Respiratory 26 (59.1) 18 (46.2) 0.24
 Gastrointestinal 10 (22.7) 14 (35.9) 0.19
 Skin/soft tissues/bone 3 (6.8) 4 (10.3) 0.7
 Urinary 1 (2.3) 1 (2.6) > 0.99
 Blood 2 (4.5) 0 (0.0) 0.5
 Other 2. (4.5) 2 (5.1) > 0.99
Organ-specific SOFA score—median [IQR]
 Cardiovascular 3 [3, 3] 3 [3, 4] 0.06
 Respiratory 2 [2, 3] 2 [2, 3] 0.80
 Renal 1 [0, 3] 2 [0, 3] 0.27
 Coagulation 0 [0, 0] 1 [0, 2] 0.006
 Liver 0 [0, 1] 1 [0, 2] 0.14
NEq (μg/kg/min)—median [IQR] 0.05 [0.03, 0.10] 0.07 [0.02, 0.16] 0.32
Continuous vasoactive drugs at baseline—no. (%)
 Noradrenaline 38 (86.4) 35 (89.7) 0.64
 Adrenaline 4 (9.1) 2 (5.1) 0.68
 Dobutamine 1 (2.3) 3 (7.7) 0.34
 Vasopressin 1 (2.3) 2 (5.1) 0.60
Sedative and analgesic drugs at baseline—no. (%)
 Propofol 31 (73.8) 33 (86.8) 0.15
 Fentanyl 26 (61.9) 30 (78.9) 0.10
 Midazolam 20 (47.6) 16 (42.1) 0.62
 Morphine 5 (11.9) 3 (7.9) 0.55
 Ketamine 2 (4.8) 2 (5.3) > 0.99
Other treatments at baseline—no. (%)
 Continuous renal replacement therapy 10 (22.7) 13 (33.3) 0.28
 Hydrocortisonea for septic shock 19 (43.2) 16 (41.0) 0.84
Physiological variables
 Fluid balance at baseline (ml)—median [IQR] 876 [− 21, 2600] 621 [− 67, 2378] 0.88
 Heart rate (beats/min)—median [IQR] 85 [74, 99.5] 95 [80, 105] 0.10
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)—mean ± SD 65.4 ± 8.35 66.1 ± 8.85 0.71
 Creatinine level (mg/dl)—median [IQR] 1.23 [0.78, 2.12] 1.76 [1.14, 2.34] 0.044
 Creatinine level (μmol/l)—median [IQR] 109 [69, 187] 156 [101, 207] 0.044
 Lactate level (mmol/l)—median [IQR] 1.8 [1.4, 2.7] 1.95 [1.4, 3.1] 0.58
 RASS prior randomization—median [IQR] − 3 [− 4, 1] − 3 [− 4, − 2] 0.69
Time from ICU admission to randomization (h)—median [IQR] 8.8 [3.6, 12.4] 11.1 [4.7, 19.1] 0.22
Time from ICU admission to start of vasopressors (h)—median [IQR] 1.4 [0.5, 3.5] 2.7 [0.4, 5.1] 0.39
  1. Categorical values are expressed as numbers (%). Continuous variables are presented as means ± SD if normally distributed, otherwise as medians [IQR]
  2. APACHE Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, DEX dexmedetomidine, ICU intensive care unit, NEq noradrenaline equivalents, RASS: Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  3. aIn the first 48 h after randomization