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Table 1 Baseline characteristics stratified into good outcome (CPC 1–2) and poor outcome (CPC3–5) after 6 months

From: Artificial neural networks improve early outcome prediction and risk classification in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients admitted to intensive care

  CPC score 1–2 CPC score 3–5 p value Missing (%)
Background
 No. of patients 440 492   
 Age, years (IQR) 61 (52–69) 68 (61–76) < 0.001 0.0
 Female sex (%) 66 (15.9) 111 (22.6) 0.004 0.0
 Length, cm (IQR) 179 (171–183) 175 (167–180) < 0.001 2.4
 Weight, kg (IQR) 80 (73–90) 80 (70–90) 0.207 1.4
 Chronic heart failure (%) 16 (3.6) 44 (9.0) 0.001 0.2
 Previous myocardial infarction (%) 79 (18.0) 112 (22.8) 0.080 0.1
 Ischaemic heart disease (%) 101 (23.0) 157 (32.0) 0.003 0.2
 Previous cardiac arrhythmia (%) 60 (13.6) 103 (21.0) 0.004 0.1
 Previous cardiac arrest (%) 9 (2.0) 12 (2.4) 0.851 0.1
 Arterial hypertension (%) 150 (34.2) 222 (45.3) 0.001 0.3
 TIA or stroke (%) 23 (5.2) 50 (10.2) 0.007 0.3
 Epilepsy (%) 11 (2.5) 5 (1.0) 0.135 0.1
 Diabetes (%) 51 (11.6) 89 (18.2) 0.007 0.5
 Asthma or COPD (%) 31 (7.0) 65 (13.2) 0.003 0.0
 Dialysis (%) 2 (0.5) 4 (0.8) 0.785 0.0
 Haematological malignancy (%) 2 (0.5) 7 (1.4) 0.241 0.6
 Other malignancies (%) 7 (1.6) 16 (3.3) 0.156 0.4
 Alcoholism (%) 10 (2.3) 26 (5.3) 0.027 0.1
 Previous PCI (%) 45 (10.2) 62 (12.7) 0.286 0.3
 Previous CABG (%) 26 (5.9) 62 (12.7) 0.001 0.3
 Previous valvular surgery (%) 10 (2.3) 15 (3.1) 0.590 0.4
 Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (%) 1 (0.2) 4 (0.8) 0.444 0.3
 Pacemaker (%) 11 (2.5) 21 (4.3) 0.196 0.3
Pre-hospital
 Cardiac arrest location (%)    < 0.001 0.0
  Place of residence 192 (43.6) 306 (62.2)   
  Public place 216 (49.1) 166 (33.7)   
  Others 32 (7.3) 20 (4.1)   
 Bystander witnessed arrest (%) 406 (92.3) 427 (86.8) 0.009 0.0
 Bystander defibrillation (%) 55 (12.5) 34 (6.9) 0.005 0.1
 First monitored rhythm (%)    < 0.001 0.0
  Non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT) 11 (2.5) 12 (2.4)   
  Ventricular fibrillation (VF) 391 (88.9) 311 (63.2)   
  Asystole 12 (2.7) 100 (20.3)   
  Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) 12 (2.7) 53 (10.8)   
  Unknown 4 (0.9) 14 (2.8)   
  ROSC after bystander defibrillation 10 (2.3) 2 (0.4)   
 First rhythm shockable (%) 414 (94.1) 333 (67.7) < 0.001 0.0
 Automatic compression-decompression (%)    0.145 0.2
  No 348 (79.1) 363 (74.1)   
  Yes, manual 30 (6.8) 35 (7.1)   
  Yes, mechanical 62 (14.1) 92 (18.8)   
 Number of defibrillations (IQR) 3 (1–4) 2 (1–3) 0.001 0.5
 Pre-hospital intubation (%) 273 (62.9) 352 (72.6) 0.002 1.0
 Seizures before admission (%)    0.005 0.2
  No 406 (92.5) 468 (95.3)   
  Yes, before CA 21 (4.8) 6 (1.2)   
  Yes, after resuscitation 12 (2.7) 17 (3.5)   
 Total dose of adrenaline, mg (IQR) 1 (0–3) 3 (1–5) < 0.001 0.4
Data set A
 CA to ALS, min (IQR) 8.00 (5.00–11.00) 10.00 (7.00–15.00) < 0.001 1.5
 CA to ROSC, min (IQR) 20.00 (14.75–30.00) 31.00 (21.00–47.00) < 0.001 0.0
 Bystander CPR (%) 347 (78.9) 331 (67.4) < 0.001 0.1
Data set B
 No flow, min (IQR)a 1.00 (0.00–3.00) 2.00 (0.00–8.00) < 0.001 0.5
 Low flow, min (IQR)b 19.00 (12.00–27.00) 27.00 (17.00–40.25) < 0.001 0.0
Admission
 Initial temperature, °C (IQR) 35.5 (34.9–36.0) 35.3 (34.4–36.0) 0.002 3.6
 Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) motor score = 1 (%) 173 (39.4) 316 (64.9) < 0.001 0.6
 Acute ST-infarction or LBBB 217 (49.5) 220 (45.4) 0.228 1.0
 Blood glucose, mmol/L (IQR) 12.35 (9.47–16.00) 14.00 (10.60–18.00) < 0.001 5.5
 pO2, kPa (IQR) 18.3 (11.7–30.1) 18.9 (12.1–37.1) 0.344 7.4
 pCO2, kPa (IQR) 6.0 (5.2–6.8) 6.3 (5.2–7.8) 0.003 5.8
 Base excess, BE (IQR) − 6.0 (− 10.0–4.0) − 10.0 (− 14.5–5.0) < 0.001 7.0
 Potassium, mmol/L (IQR) 3.7 (3.4–4.2) 4.0 (3.5–4.5) < 0.001 2.9
 FiO2, % (IQR) 80 (50–100) 90 (53–100) 0.215 3.2
 Creatinine, μmol/L (IQR) 95 (80–115) 115 (90–140) < 0.001 3.1
 Platelets, cells × 109/L (IQR) 220 (185–265) 215 (170–274) 0.128 3.1
 WBC, cells × 109/L (IQR) 14.0 (10.6–18.0) 14.0 (10.4–18.5) 0.872 4.1
 Cough reflex (%) 277 (70.1) 211 (48.6) < 0.001 11.1
 Spontaneous breathing (%) 310 (72.9) 284 (60.3) < 0.001 3.9
 pH (IQR) 7.27 (7.17–7.32) 7.19 (7.05–7.28) < 0.001 4.6
 Lactate, mmol/L (IQR) 4.6 (2.4–8.1) 6.9 (3.9–10.6) < 0.001 6.3
 Shock on admission (%)c 36 (8.2) 100 (20.3) < 0.001 0.0
 Pupil or corneal response (%) 392 (90.1) 327 (68.7) < 0.001 2.3
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or median (IQR). n denotes the number of cases with valid data. A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant. The 54 variables are grouped into background, pre-hospital and admission variables
  2. IQR interquartile range, CPC cerebral performance category, TIA transient ischaemic attack, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, VT ventricular tachycardia, VF ventricular fibrillation, PEA pulseless electric activity, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, CA cardiac arrest, ALS advanced life support, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, LBBB left bundle branch block, WBC white blood cell
  3. aNo flow is defined as the time from the arrest to the start of CPR
  4. bLow flow is defined as the time from the start of CPR to ROSC
  5. cShock on admission is defined as systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mmHg for more than 30 min or end-organ hypoperfusion unless vasoactive drugs are administered