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Table 3 Possible predictors of high-grade (score ≥ 7) biofilm formation on the endotracheal tube

From: Biofilm formation on three different endotracheal tubes: a prospective clinical trial

Factor No
n = 65
Yes
n = 41
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
ETT type
 PVC (reference) 15 (23) 19 (46) NA NA NA NA NA NA
 SC 23 (35) 7 (17) 0.24 0.08–0.71 0.010 0.18 0.06–0.59 0.005
 NbMC 27 (42) 15 (37) 0.44 0.17–1.11 0.081 0.34 0.13–0.93 0.036
Age 69 (58–76) 66 (53–75) 0.98 0.95–1.00 0.088 0.98 0.95–1.02 0.388
Sex, male 34 (52) 26 (63) 1.58 0.71–3.52 0.262 1.78 0.72–4.39 0.211
Days with invasive ventilation 3.1 (2.0–5.8) 3.8 (2.0–9.2) 1.06 0.98–1.14 0.157 1.06 0.97–1.15 0.219
Colonized 33 (51) 18 (44) 0.76 0.35–1.67 0.491 0.59 0.25–1.43 0.245
  1. Data are presented as median (range) or number (percentage). “Colonized” refers to patients colonized with common VAP pathogens in surveillance (oropharyngeal or endotracheal) cultures. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ETT endotracheal tube, PVC polyvinyl chloride, SC silicone-coated, NbMC noble-metal-coated, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, NA not applicable