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Table 1 Demographics, baseline characteristics, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors of COVID-19 patients

From: VEGF-D: a novel biomarker for detection of COVID-19 progression

CharacteristicsTotal (n = 24)Severe patients (n = 14)Critical patients (n = 10)P values
Age mean range, years68 (36, 88)65 (36, 81)77 (64, 88).003
Gender   .521
 Male, n (%)15 (62.5)10 (71.4)5 (50) 
 Female, n (%)9 (37.5)4 (28.6)5 (50) 
Admission to ICU, mean (SD), days22 (22)13 (8)35 (28).009
SOFA score, mean (SD)3.7 (2.4)2.8 (1.7)4.9 (2.8).015
Complications, n (%)   .568
 Hypertension10 (41.7)6 (42.9)4 (40.0)1
 Cardiovascular disease4 (16.7)1 (7.1)3 (30.0).355
 Chronic Pulmonary disease6 (25)1 (7.1)5 (50.0).056
 Diabetes6 (25)2 (14.3)4 (40.0).339
 Hyperlipemia000 
 Chronic kidney disease3 (12.5)2 (14.3)1 (10.0)1
 Immune disorders3 (12.5)3 (21.4)0.348
 Others1 (4.2)1 (7.1)01
Laboratory data, mean (SD)
 WBC, 109/L7.72 (5.12)5.82 (2.13)10.20 (6.8).039
 Lymphocyte, 109/L1.08 (0.47)0.93 (0.45)1.27 (0.44).089
 Neutrophil, 109/L6.34 (4.91)4.59 (1.74)8.63 (6.7).048
 Platelets, 109/L211 (98)206 (85)218 (117).785
 PT, s13.1 (1.7)13.5 (1.9)12.7 (1.4).291
 APTT, s33.8 (8.6)33.9 (7.2)33.7 (10.4).973
d-dimer, mg/L4.9 (7.6)2.9 (5.2)7.1 (9.3).213
 CRP, mg/L69.4 (66.1)55.3 (32.7)85.1 (89.6).315
 LDH, U/L403.6 (129.6)398.3 (66.1)406.3 (155.5).916
 Serum creatinine, μmol/L108.1 (172.4)67.9 (12.9)148.1 (242.9).331
 ALT, U/L40.5 (13.9)44.8 (23.2)41.9 (31.5).809
 Blood potassium, mmol/L4.0 (0.5)3.9 (0.4)4.2 (0.5).299
 Blood sodium, mmol/L137.4 (5.9)137.1 (8.2)137.8 (2.7).772
Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, median (IQR), pg/mL
 VEGF-D40.1 (17.7, 64.8)25.9 (12.3, 40.6)62.9 (45.8, 79.6).0048
 TNF-α25.3 (3.2, 67.9)8.6 (0, 48.4)54.8 (15.3, 131.0).027
 SCF17.1 (9.2, 20.7)13.9 (7.7, 18.4)20.1 (16.2, 68.3).019
 LIF18.4 (4.2, 64.9)7.4 (1.9, 21.9)56.5 (10.8, 96.9).0089
 IL-235.2 (8.7, 59.1)17.5 (4.7, 43.5)55.2 (23.5, 90.2).018
 IL-42.1 (0, 20.2)0 (0, 9.8)143.7 (47.2, 203.9).033
 IL-654.2 (26.7, 157.8)35.4 (19.5, 76.9)143.7 (47.2, 203.9).019
 IL-820.1 (0.1, 44.2)2.6 (0, 13.0)13.0 (5.4, 17.8).039
 IL-106.0 (1.4, 15.3)3.9 (0.9, 6.2)8.4 (3.3, 24.1).038
 IL-1520.1 (4.8, 44.2)10.7 (1.8, 26.3)38.7 (18.1, 83.3).018
 IL-17A19.8 (0.7, 55.3)9.5 (0, 26.2)50.0 (16.4, 109.4).021
 IL-1886.0 (19.8, 185.6)29.2 (18.5, 109.1)158.9 (91.8, 209.2).046
 IL-1β8.8 (2.1, 25.2)4.4 (1.6, 15.8)22.8 (7.8, 52.7).022
 IFN-γ17.6 (6.2, 29.9)9.1 (3.6, 24.2)26.4 (12.9, 53.2).013
  1. WBC white blood cells, CRP C-reactive protein, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, PT prothrombin time, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, ALT alanine aminotransferase, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor; TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, SCF stem cell factor; LIF leukemia inhibitory factor, IL interleukin, IFN interferon