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Table 1 Respiratory support and outcomes for intensive care unit patients

From: Mortality rates of patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit: a systematic review of the emerging literature

StudyICU sample sizeRespiratory supportICU outcomes
HFNCNIVIMVIMV deathsDeathsStill in ICUDischarged from ICUs
China51781 (15.7%)118 (22.8%)183 (35.4%)132/167 (79.0%)195 (37.7%)73 (14.1%)249 (48.2%)
 Yang, Wuhan5233 (63.5%)29 (55.8%)22 (42.3%)19 (86.4%)32 (61.5%)12 (23.1%)8 (15.4%)
 Wang, Wuhan364 (11.1%)15 (41.7%)17 (47.2%)6 (35.3%)6 (16.7%)11 (30.6%)19 (52.8%)
 Zhang, Wuhan440 (0%)27 (61.4%)16 (36.4%)NA9 (20.5%)12 (27.3%)23 (52.3%)
 Wang, Wuhan34435 (10.2%)34 (9.9%)100 (29.1%)97 (97.0%)133 (38.7%)26 (7.6%)185 (53.8%)
 Zhang, Wuhan200020 (100%)7 (35.0%)12 (60%)7 (35.0%)1 (5.0%)
 Zhou, Jiangsu219 (42.9%)13 (61.9%)8 (38.1%)3 (37.5%)3 (14.3%)5 (23.8%)13 (61.9%)
Italy1591NA137 (8.6%)1150 (72.3%)405/1150 (35.2%)405 (25.6%)920 (58.2%)256 (16.2%)
 Grasselli, Lombardy1591NA137 (8.6%)1150 (72.3%)405 (35.2)405 (25.6%)*920 (58.2%)*256 (16.2%)*
USA139211 (0.8%)4 (0.3%)1250 (89.8%)305/1235 (24.7%)328 (23.6%)921 (66.2%)143 (10.3%)
 Arentz, Washington211 (4.8%)4 (19.0%)15 (71.4%)NA14 (66.7%)5 (23.8%)2 (9.5%)
 Bhatraju, Washington2410 (41.7%)0 (0%)18 (75.0%)12 (66.7%)12 (50.0%)3 (12.5%)9 (37.5%)
 Richardson, New York1281NANA1151 (89.9%)282 (24.5%)291 (22.7%)908 (70.9%)82 (6.4%)
 Ziehr, Boston660066 (100%)11 (16.7%)11 (16.7%)5 (7.6%)50 (75.8%)
Spain483 (6.3%)0 (0%)45 (93.8%)14/45 (31.1%)14 (29.2%)21 (43.8%)13 (27.1%)
 Barrasa, Vitoria483 (6.3%)0 (0%)45 (93.8%)14 (31.1%)14 (29.2%)21 (43.8%)13 (27.1%)
Denmark170017 (100%)7 /17 (41.2%)7 (41.2%)6 (35.3%)4 (23.5%)
 Pedersen, Zealand170017 (100%)7 (41.2%)7 (41.2%)6 (35.3%)4 (23.5%)
Germany37NANANANA9 (24.3%)21 (56.8%)7 (18.9%)
 Rieg, Freiburg37NANANANA9 (24.3%)21 (56.8%)7 (18.9%)
UK196NANA132 (66.3%)NA16 (8.0%)163 (81.9%)17 (8.5%)
 Mahase, UK196NANA132 (66.3%)NA16 (8.0%)163 (81.9%)17 (8.5%)
Total379895/693 (13.7%)259/2284 (11.3%)2645/3761 (70.3%)863/2482 (34.8%)974/3788* (25.7%)2125/3788* (56.1%)689/3788* (18.2%)
  1. Data are presented as n (%). ICU intensive care unit, HFNC high-flow nasal cannula, NIV noninvasive ventilation, IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, NA data not available. *Data on disposition available for 1581 out of 1591 patients in the study by Grasselli et al., hence the denominator for ICU outcomes is 3788 rather than 3798