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Table 2 Evolution of hemodynamic profile during daily transesophageal echocardiography assessments of COVID-19 patients ventilated for ARDS

From: Cardiovascular phenotypes in ventilated patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome

 Day 1 (n = 18)Day 2 (n = 10)Day 3 (n = 12)p value
Respiratory parameters
 PaO2/FiO2130 (81–217)128 (100–210)137 (98–187)0.066
 PaCO2, mmHg44 (33–51)50 (32–56)47 (37–57)0.964
 RR, breaths/min24 (22–27)27 (20–28)24 (24–30)0.651
 PEEP, cmH2O10 (8–12)10 (8–13)10 (10–12)0.444
 Plateau pressure, cmH2O23 (20–26)22 (18–27)24 (21–27)0.127
 Driving pressure, cmH2O12 (10–15)11 (9–12)13 (11–17)0.368
 Tidal volume, mL/kg5.2 (4.5–6.2)5.3 (4.6–6.6)5.5 (4.3–6.7)0.210
 Respiratory-system compliance*, mL/cmH2O38 (31–45)33 (33–53)37 (28–45)0.692
Hemodynamic parameters
 Heart rate, bpm90 (72–109)93 (78–107)98 (89–104)0.368
 CVP, mmHg9 (7–10)7 (6–10)9 (5–13)0.678
 Mean blood pressure, mmHg102 (85–110)105 (87–110)95 (84–109)0.102
 Lactate, mmol/L1.17 (0.89–1.57)1.85 (1.24–3.01)1.62 (1.49–1.95)0.264
Echocardiography indices
 Cardiac index (L/min/m2)**3.1 (2.5–4.2)2.8 (2.6–3.9)4.1 (3.2–4.8)0.115
 RVEDA/LVEDA0.55 (0.37–0.60)0.53 (0.35–0.66)0.55 (0.48–0.58)0.549
 RVFAC, %46 (35–50)40 (33–46)40 (32–58)0.821
 TAPSE, mm25 (23–29)24 (20–28)25 (23–28)0.368
 Tricuspid S′, cm/s16.0 (15.0–20.5)16.1 (14.0–18.1)16.8 (14.9–19.9)0.867
 TR peak velocity, m/s3.2 (2.9–3.6)3.0 (2.7–3.7)3.6 (2.4–3.9)0.060
 IVC diameter, mm22 (19–26)24 (14–30)22 (17–24)1.000
 LVEF, %52 (44–61)46 (41–64)55 (49–60)0.549
  1. Abbreviations: RR respiratory rate, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, CVP central venous pressure, RVEDA right ventricular end-diastolic area, LVEDA left ventricular end-diastolic area, RVFAC right ventricular fractional area change, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, TR tricuspid regurgitation, IVC inferior vena cava, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction
  2. *Calculated as the tidal volume divided by the driving pressure (difference between the inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure)
  3. **Measured using the Doppler method applied at the left ventricular outflow tract