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Table 1 Study characteristics for ARDS development

From: A systematic review of biomarkers multivariately associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome development and mortality

Study Study design Study population ARDS definition Outcome Total (n) ARDS (n) Age Gender, male n (%) Variables in multivariate analysis Sample moment
Agrawal 2013 [23] Prospective cohort Critically ill AECC ALI 167 19 69 ± 16 8 (42.1%) APACHE II score, sepsis Within 24 h following admission
Ahasic 2012 [24] Case-control Critically ill AECC ARDS 531 175 60.7 ± 17.6 102 (58.2%) Age, gender, APACHE III score, BMI, ARDS risk factor Within 48 h following admission
Aisiku 2016 [25] RCT (TBI trial) Critically ill neurotrauma Berlin ARDS 200 52 29.0 (19.5 IQR) 50 (96.2%) Gender, injury severity scale, Glasgow coma scale Within 24 h following injury
Amat 2000 [26] Case-control Critically ill AECC ARDS 35 21 54 ± 16 15 (71.4%) Not specified At ICU admission
Bai 2017 [27] Prospective cohort Critically ill neurotrauma Berlin ARDS 50 21 48 (39–57 IQR) 10 (46.7%) Age, gender, BMI, injury score, blood transfusion, mechanical ventilation, Marshall CT score, Glasgow coma scale At admission
Bai 2017 [27] Prospective cohort Critically ill trauma Berlin ARDS 42 16 44 (35–56 IQR) 10 (62.5%) Age, gender, BMI, injury score, blood transfusion, mechanical ventilation, Marshall CT score, Glasgow coma scale At admission
Bai 2018 [28] Prospective cohort Stroke patients Berlin ARDS 384 60 64 (43–72 IQR) 22 (36.7%) Age, gender, BMI, onset to treatment time, medical history Within 6 h following stroke
Chen 2019 [29] Case-control Critically ill sepsis Berlin ARDS 115 57 56.3 ± 10.1 40 (70.2%) Age, gender, BMI, smoking history, COPD, cardiomyopathy, APACHE II score, SOFA score Within 24 h following ARDS onset or ICU admission
Du 2016 [30] Prospective cohort Cardiac surgery patients AECC ALI 70 18 57.7 ± 11.6 12 (66.7%) Age, medical history, BMI, systolic blood pressure Within 1 h following surgery
Faust 2020 [31] Prospective cohort Critically ill trauma Berlin ARDS 224 41 44 (30–60 IQR) 37 (90.2%) Injury severity score, blunt mechanism, pre-ICU shock At ED
Faust 2020 [31] Prospective cohort Critically ill sepsis Berlin ARDS 120 45 62 (52–67 IQR) 15 (33.3%) Lung source of sepsis, shock, age At ED
Fremont 2010 [32] Case-control Critically ill AECC ALI/ARDS 192 107 39 (26–53 IQR) 71 (66.4%) Not specified Within 72 h following ICU admission
Gaudet 2018 [33] Prospective cohort Critically ill patients Berlin ARDS 72 11 56 (51–63 IQR) 8 (72.7%) Not specified At inclusion
Hendrickson 2018 [34] Retrospective cohort Severe traumatic brain injury Berlin ARDS 182 50 44 ± 20 42 (84.0%) Age, acute injury scale, Glasgow coma scale, vasopressor use Within 10 min following ED arrival
Huang 2019 [35] Prospective cohort Critically ill sepsis Berlin ARDS 152 41 63.2 ± 11.0 32 (78.0%) Age, gender, BMI, smoking history, COPD, cardiomyopathy, APACHE II score, SOFA score Within 24 h following ICU admission
Huang 2019 [36] Prospective cohort Critically ill pancreatitis Berlin ARDS 1933 143 49 (42–60 IQR) 87 (60.8%) Age, gender, aetiology of ARDS, APACHE II score At admission
Jabaudon 2018 [37] Prospective cohort Critically ill Berlin ARDS 464 59 62 ± 16 46 (78.0%) SAPS II, sepsis, shock, pneumonia Within 6 h following ICU admission
Jensen 2016 [38] RCT (PASS) Critically ill Berlin ARDS 405 31 NR NR Age, gender, APACHE II score, sepsis, eGFR Within 24 h following admission
Jensen 2016 [38] RCT (PASS) Critically ill Berlin ARDS 353* 31 NR NR Age, gender, APACHE II score, sepsis, eGFR Within 24 h following admission
Jones 2020 [39] Prospective cohort Critically ill sepsis Berlin ARDS 672 261 60 (51–69 IQR) 154 (59.0%) Pulmonary source, APACHE III score At admission
Jones 2020 [39] Prospective cohort Critically ill sepsis Berlin ARDS 843 NR NR NR Pulmonary source, APACHE III score Within 48 h following admission
Komiya 2011 [40] Cross sectional Acute respiratory failure AECC ALI/ARDS 124 53 78 (69–85 IQR) 34 (64.2%) Age, systolic blood pressure, VEF, chest X-ray pleural effusion Within 2 h following emergency department arrival
Lee 2011 [41] Prospective cohort Critically ill AECC ALI/ARDS 113 50 57.6 ± 19.1 24 (48.0%) Sepsis, BMI Within 24 h following ICU admission
Lin 2017 [42] Retrospective cohort Critically ill Berlin ARDS 212 83 54.3 ± 20.3 53 (63.9%) CRP, albumin, serum creatinine, APACHE II score Within 2 h following ICU admission
Liu 2017 [43] Prospective cohort Critically ill AECC ALI/ARDS 134 19 69 ± 18 10 (52.6%) APACHE II, sepsis severity On arrival at ED
Luo 2017 [44] Retrospective cohort Severe pneumonia AECC ALI/ARDS 157 43 56 ± 19 25 (58.1%) Lung injury score, SOFA score, PaO2/FiO2, blood urea Day 1 following admission
Meyer 2017 [45] Prospective cohort Critically ill trauma Berlin ARDS 198 100 60 ± 14 62 (62.0%) APACHE III score, age, gender, ethnicity, pulmonary infection On arrival at ED or ICU
Mikkelsen 2012 [46] Case-control Critically ill AECC ALI/ARDS 48 24 38 ± 20 22 (91.7%) APACHE III score In ED
Osaka 2011 [47] Prospective cohort Pneumonia AECC ALI/ARDS 27 6 75 (51–92 range) 4 (66.7%) Not specified 3 to 5 days following admission
Palakshappa 2016 [48] Prospective cohort Critically ill Berlin ARDS 163 73 58 (52–68 IQR) 42 (57.5%) APACHE III score, diabetes, BMI, pulmonary sepsis At ICU admission
Reilly 2018 [49] Prospective cohort Critically ill sepsis Berlin ARDS 703 289 60 (51–69 IQR) 170 (58.8%) Pulmonary source, APACHE III score Within 24 h of ICU admission
Shashaty 2019 [50] Prospective cohort Critically ill sepsis Berlin ARDS 120 44 61 (50–68 IQR) NR Age, transfusion, pulmonary source, shock At ED
Shashaty 2019 [50] Prospective cohort Critically ill trauma Berlin ARDS 180 37 41 (25–62 IQR) NR Injury severity score, blunt mechanism, transfusion At presentation
Shaver 2017 [51] Prospective cohort Critically ill AECC ARDS 280 90 54 (44–64 IQR) 54 (60.0%) Age, APACHE II, sepsis Day of inclusion
Suzuki 2017 [52] Retrospective cohort Suspected drug-induced lung injury New bilateral lung infiltration ALI/ARDS 68 39 72 (65-81IQR) 25 (64.1%) Gender, age, smoking history, biomarkers As soon as possible after DLI suspicion
Wang 2019 [53] Prospective cohort Critically ill sepsis Berlin ARDS 109 32 58 ± 10.7 NR Age, gender, BMI, smoking history, COPD, cardiomyopathy, APACHE II score, SOFA score Within 24 h following admission
Ware 2017 [54] Prospective cohort Critically ill trauma patients Berlin ARDS 393 78 42 (26–55) 56 (71.8%) Not specified Within 24 h following inclusion
Xu 2018 [55] Prospective cohort Critically ill Berlin ARDS 158 45 60.0 ± 17.1 35 (77.8%) APACHE II score, Lung injury prediction score, biomarkers, sepsis Within 24 h of ICU admission
Yeh 2017 [56] Prospective cohort Critically ill AECC ALI/ARDS 129 18 65 ± 18 10 (55.6%) APACHE II score On arrival at the ED
Ying 2019 [57] Prospective cohort Critically ill pneumonia Berlin ARDS 145 37 61.3 ± 10.4 23 (62.2%) Age, SOFA score, lung injury score, heart rate At admission
     Total 10,667 2419     
       24.6%     
  1. *Validating cohort
  2. Some studies included patients from the same cohort
  3. Abbreviations: AECC American European Consensus Conference definition of ARDS, ALI acute lung injury, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRP C-reactive protein, DLI drug-induced lung injury, ED emergency department, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ICU intensive care unit, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, SAPS simplified acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment