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Table 1 Admission characteristics associated with group A streptococcal documentation

From: Early identification of patients at high risk of group A streptococcus-associated necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections: a retrospective cohort study

 Available dataOverall (n = 224)GASa (n = 60)Others (n = 164)p (univariate)bAdjusted ORcp (multivariate)c
Demographical data
 Age, years, median (IQR)22464.00 [53.00–74.25]60.00 [50.00–72.00]65.00 [55.50–75.00]0.083  
 Male gender, n (%)224127 (56.7)31 (51.7)96 (58.5)0.443  
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus22483 (37.1)18 (30.0)65 (39.6)0.244  
 Immunodeficiency22458 (25.9)6 (10.0)52 (31.7)0.0020.29 [0.10–0.74]0.015
  HIV infection2242 (0.9)0 (0.0)2 (1.2)0.954  
  Cancer22421 (9.4)0 (0.0)21 (12.8)0.008  
  Corticosteroids22436 (16.1)6 (10.0)30 (18.3)0.197  
 Obliterating arteritis of the lower limbs22424 (10.7)5 (8.3)19 (11.6)0.651  
 Liver cirrhosis2249 (4.0)0 (0.0)9 (5.5)0.142  
 Chronic kidney disease22425 (11.2)4 (6.7)21 (12.8)0.293  
 Chronic alcohol consumption22427 (12.1)5 (8.3)22 (13.4)0.422  
 Obesity22457 (25.4)13 (21.7)44 (26.8)0.54  
Prior to admission
 Time from first symptom, days, median (IQR)2245.00 [2.00–9.75]5.00 [2.00–7.25]5.00 [2.00–10.00]0.599  
 Antibiotic treatment, n (%)221137 (61.2)30 (50.8)107 (66.0)0.057  
 NSAID use, n (%)22246 (20.5)19 (31.7)27 (16.7)0.0240.122
Presentation upon admission
 Nosocomial infection, n (%)22245 (20.1)4 (6.7)41 (25.3)0.0040.197
 Abdominoperineal location, n (%)22338 (17.0)1 (1.7)37 (22.7)< 0.0010.06 [0.00–0.30]0.007
 Shock, n (%)22091 (40.6)21 (35.6)70 (43.5)0.369  
 Creatininemia, μmol/L, median [IQR]210112.50 [69.00–171.25]123.00 [71.25–187.25]109.50 [67.25–167.75]0.571  
 Uremia, mmol/L, median [IQR]2079.80 [5.25–19.00]10.25 [5.45–18.02]9.80 [5.20–19.10]0.966  
 Plasma bicarbonate, mmol/L, median [IQR]19322.90 [19.70–26.80]22.70 [20.10–26.00]23.00 [19.50–27.05]0.943  
 Blood leucocytes 103/mm3, median [IQR]21914.40 [9.50–21.60]17.20 [12.35, 22.50]13.60 [9.00–21.00]0.0160.067
 Platelets 103/mm3, median [IQR]189217.00 [153.00–329.00]223.50 [181.25–312.50]207.00 [144.00–344.00]0.45  
 Hemoglobinemia, g/dL, median [IQR]21510.70 [9.45–12.15]11.05 [10.15–12.50]10.60 [9.35–12.10]0.171  
 Arterial lactate-mmol/L median [IQR]1462.00 [1.30–3.48]2.10 [1.50–3.60]2.00 [1.20–3.40]0.677  
  1. Analysis among 224 patients admitted for necrotizing soft tissue infection. aGroup A streptococcal infection. bp values for univariate comparison of documented group A streptococcal infection vs others; Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test were used for categorical data according to sample size, Mann-Whitney’s test was used for continuous variables due to non-parametrical distribution. cp values and adjusted ORs from a logistic regression model assessing the relationship between admission characteristics and group A streptococcal documentation. The model included all variables with a p value < 0.05 in univariate analysis. Analysis regarding 213 patients (11 patients excluded for missing data on one of the variables of the model. Immunodeficiency encompassed active cancer, chemotherapy within the last 3 months, previous HIV infection whatever the AIDS status, the CD4 lymphocytes counts or the viral load, any immunosuppressive drugs including chronic systemic steroid treatment (whatever the dose but for at least 3 months). HIV human immunodeficiency virus, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug