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Table 3 Predisposition, infection, response, and organ failure (PIRO) characteristics of admissions stratified by admission status

From: Predicting the clinical trajectory in critically ill patients with sepsis: a cohort study

VariableAt risk, N = 53Limited organ failure, N = 1151Multiple-organ failure, N = 167P value
Predisposition
 Age (years)63 (48–73)63 (53–71)63 (52–71)0.90
 Male gender61 (61)709 (61)82 (62)0.98
 Chronic comorbidities
  Diabetes mellitus26 (26)217 (19)24 (18)0.19
  Cardiovascular diseasea28 (28)318 (27)30 (23)0.49
  Immunodeficiencyb33 (33)316 (27)41 (31)0.33
  Renal insufficiencyc23 (23)192 (16)20 (15)0.21
  Respiratory insufficiencyd15 (15)171 (15)24 (18)0.59
 Admission type, medical78 (78)853 (73)103 (77)0.22
Insult
 Source (hospital-acquired)42 (42)514 (44)65 (49)0.51
 Site/organ system   0.036
  Pulmonary68 (68)676 (58)61 (46) 
  Abdomen5 (5)125 (11)20 (15)
  Urinary tract6 (6)67 (6)11 (8)
  Other or unknown21 (21)298 (26)41 (31)
Response
 SIRS criteriae
  Temperature53 (53)683 (59)92 (69)0.027
  Leukocytes65 (65)839 (72)93 (70)0.32
  Respiratory rate86 (86)1122 (96)130 (98)< 0.001
  Heart rate75 (75)939 (81)122 (92)0.002
 C-reactive protein (mg/L)118 (75–209)189 (101–296)225 (123–293)0.015
 Lactate (mmol/L)2.0 (1.3–2.9)2.7 (1.7–4.5)6.2 (4.1–10.7)< 0.001
Organ dysfunction
 SOFA score at admission5 (4–7)8 (7–10)12 (11–15)< 0.001
 APACHE IV score70 (60–87)84 (69–102)112 (95–130)< 0.001
Outcome
 ICU case fatality5 (9)180 (16)67 (40)< 0.001
 ICU length of stay (days)5 (3–12)7 (3–12)10 (4–18)< 0.001
  1. Data are numbers (percentage) or median (inter-quartile range)
  2. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ICU intensive care unit, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome
  3. aCardiovascular disease was defined as cerebrovascular disease or chronic cardiovascular insufficiency (New York Heart Association class 4), chronic congestive heart failure (ejection fraction < 30%), or peripheral vascular disease (intermittent claudication, patients with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or bypass for arterial insufficiency)
  4. bImmunodeficiency was defined as having acquired immune deficiency syndrome, the use of corticosteroids in high doses (equivalent to prednisolone of > 75 mg/day for at least 1 week), current use of immunosuppressive drugs, current use of antineoplastic, drugs recent hematologic malignancy, or documented humoral or cellular deficiency
  5. cRenal insufficiency was defined as chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine > 177 μmol/L) or chronic dialysis
  6. dRespiratory insufficiency was defined as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic respiratory insufficiency with functional disabilities (chronic mechanical ventilation, oxygen use at home, or severe pulmonary hypertension)
  7. eSystemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria were defined as temperature < 36.0 or > 38.0 °C during at least 2 and 1 h, respectively; white blood cell count < 4 or > 12 × 109/L or > 10% immature (band) forms; heart rate > 90/min during at least 1 h; respiratory rate > 20/min during at least 1 h, pCO2 < 32 mmHg, or mechanical ventilation