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Table 1 Clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients at ICU admission

From: Expiratory flow limitation in intensive care: prevalence and risk factors

VariablesTotal (n = 121)NO EFL (n = 84)EFL (n = 37)p value
Age68 ± 1467 ± 1571 ± 120.181
Male sex, n (%)81 (67)60 (71)21 (57)0.114
BMI, kg/m227.0 ± 5.625.3 ± 3.930.7 ± 6.8< 0.0001
SOFA at admission6 [4–9]6 [4–8]8 [6–10]0.015
SAPSII42 [31–48]38 [29–47]42 [35–53]0.077
Smoking history, n (%)   0.343
 Current smoker29 (24)17 (20)12 (32) 
 Former smoker31 (26)16 (25)15 (26) 
mMRC ≥ 335 (29)9 (11)26 (70)< 0.0001
NYHA ≥ 262 (51)27 (32)35 (95)< 0.0001
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Heart diseases68 (56)40 (48)28 (76)0.004
 Hypertension42 (35)28 (33)14 (38)0.632
 Chronic cardiac ischaemia43 (36)22 (26)21 (57)0.001
 COPD28 (23)9 (11)19 (51)< 0.0001
 OSAS7 (6)3 (4)4 (11)0.116
 CKD21 (17)10 (12)11 (30)0.017
Reason for MV initiation, n (%)
 AHRF52 (43)31 (37)21 (57)0.042
 Sepsis45 (37)34 (41)11 (30)0.260
 Septic shock28 (23)21 (25)7 (19)0.465
 Haemorrhagic shock11 (9)8 (10)3 (8)0.803
 Coma13 (11)11 (13)2 (5)0.208
ARDS29 (24)13 (16)16 (43)0.001
 Mild7 (24)3 (23)4 (24) 
 Moderate14 (48)8 (62)6 (38) 
 Severe8 (28)2 (15)6 (38) 
  1. EFL expiratory flow limitation, BMI body mass index, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score, mMRC modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale, NYHA New York Heart Association classification, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OSAS obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, CKD chronic kidney disease, ICU intensive care unit, AHRF acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome