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Table 2 Prognostic values of other biomarkers studied simultaneously with serum PCT levels

From: The prognostic value of serum procalcitonin measurements in critically injured patients: a systematic review

StudyOther biomarkersComments on other biomarkers
Ren et al. [33]HSP70, WBC- HSP70 and WBC levels were elevated at 1–6 h post injury while PCT increased 24 h post
- Magnitude of HSP70 increased was related to the severity of injury
- Increased HSP70 24 h post injury suggested infection
Rajkumari et al. [35]CRP- No difference in CRP levels between patients with and without sepsis
- PCT and CRP did not correlate with SOFA score
Haasper et al. [37]IL-6- IL-6 levels peaked on day 0, while PCT peaked levels peaked on day 1
- Significant difference in IL-6 and PCT levels between patients with and without MODS
- No difference in IL-6 and PCT levels between patients with and without sepsis
Keel et al. [38]PSP, CRP, IL-6- Significant difference in PSP levels between patients with and without sepsis during hospital stay
- Slow induction of CRP with peak levels reaching day 3. Significant difference in CRP levels between patients with and without sepsis on day 7 after trauma
- Peak IL-6 levels of day 0 after trauma. Significantly higher IL-6 levels in septic patients after day 5 compared to patients with no infection
- Peak PCT on day 1. Significant PCT levels between patients with sepsis and without on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14
- No difference in CRP, PCT, and IL-6 levels between patients with sepsis and local infection
Castelli et al. [39]CRP- No difference in CRP levels between patients with and without sepsis
- CRP did not correlate with SOFA score
Billeter et al. [40]CRP, IL-6, lactate-IL-6 peaked on day 1 after trauma
- Significant difference in IL-6 levels between patients with or without sepsis on days 3 and 5. No difference after day 5
- Slow induction of CRP with peak levels reaching between days 3 and 7
- Significant difference in CRP levels between patients with or without sepsis on days 5, 7, and 14
- Insufficient 24-h lactate clearance was associated with high rate of mortality and sepsis
Balci et al. [42]CRP- CRP levels were higher only in cases of severe sepsis or septic shock, but not in cases of sepsis alone
- Significant difference in CRP level between survivors and non-survivors on days 1 and 7
Castelli et al. [43]CRP- Slow induction of CRP after trauma
- No correlation between CRP levels and sepsis
- CRP levels correlated with SOFA score
Ertugrul et al. [44]CRP- No difference in CRP levels between infected and non-infected groups
Meisner et al. [45]CRP- CRP levels peaked on day 3 (slow induction)
- No correlation between CRP levels and posttraumatic complications including sepsis, MODS, and mortality
Egger et al. [46]PMN migration, CRP, IL-6, IL-8, NT, lactate, cortisol, Elastase, MDA- PMN migration was a highly sensitive predictive marker for infection
- No difference in the other biomarker levels between infected and non-infected groups
Hensler et al. [47]Neopetrin (NT)- NT level decreased on day 0 after trauma, followed by an increase on days 1 and 2
- Both PCT and NT were unable to differentiate between patients who developed sepsis or not
- No difference between PCT or NT levels of survivors and non-survivors
- No difference in NT levels between patients with and without MOF
Oberholzer et al. [49]IL-6Both PCT and IL-6 levels peaked on day 1 after trauma
Both PCT and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in septic patients compared with patients without sepsis
Both PCT and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients who developed MODS compared with patients without MODS
Mimoz et al. [51]CRP- PCT levels peaked on day 1 while CRP levels peaked on day 2 after trauma
- Both peak PCT and CRP levels were higher in patients who subsequently developed MODS
  1. Abbreviations: HAI hospital-acquired infection, CRP C-reactive protein, IL interleukin, PCT procalcitonin, NT neopetrin, PMN polymorphonuclear leucocyte, PSP pancreatic stone protein, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, MODS multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MDA malondialdehyde