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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: A comparison of clinical paediatric guidelines for hypotension with population-based lower centiles: a systematic review

Author Country Inclusion Exclusion Age range (years) Setting Sample size Method of measurement Defined BP centiles Determinants of age-specified centiles Measurement used for analysis Main outcome
Antal et al. [12] Hungary Secondary school Using antihypertensive medication 15–18 Community setting 6345 Oscill. P3, P5 Sex First measurement Assessment of age- and gender-specific anthropometric parameters and blood pressure values
Barba et al. [13] 8 EU countries Non-overweight children Overweight 2–10.9 Unspecified 13,547 Oscill. P1, P3 Sex, height Mean of first and second measurement Provide oscillometric blood pressure reference values
Blake et al. [14] Australia Cohort from a tertiary perinatal centre. Follow-up at age 1, 3 and 6 years x 1–6 Unspecified 2876 Oscill. P5 Sex Mean of two measurements To develop age- and gender-specific reference ranges for BP
Grajda et al. [15] Poland Healthy pre-school children Congenital, chronic or acute disorders and medication affecting growth or BP levels 3–6 Community setting 4378 Oscill. P1, P5 Sex, height Mean of second and third measurement To develop age- and gender-specific ranges for BP in pre-school children
Hediger et al. [16] USA Black adolescents x 11–17 Unspecified 621 Auscul. P5 Sex Mean of two measurements Percentiles for black adolescents for resting BP and 60-s pulse rate
Kent et al. [17] Australia Term infants Congenital anomalies, birth weight < third percentile, sepsis, NICU admission. Maternal hypertension, diabetes, use of illicit substances 0–1 Hospital: postnatal clinical, other in a non-clinical room 406 Oscill. P5 x Mean of three measurements Normative BP during first year of life of healthy infants
Karmar et al. [18] Sweden Children, junior school Physical health problems, medication that affects BP 6–16 Community setting 1470 Oscill. P5 Sex Mean of second and third measurement Cross-sectional normative casual BP standards
Krzyzaniak et al. [19] Poland School children x 7–18 Community setting 6447 Auscul. P5 Sex, height Mean of two measurements on three different days To develop age- and gender-specific reference ranges
Lurbe et al. [20] Spain Normotensive children Systemic and renal disease 6–16 Primary care 248 Oscill. P5 Sex, casual and ambulatory BP Mean of three measurements and means of daytime measurements Assess reference values of ambulatory blood pressure
Rosner et al. [21] USA 11 large paediatric blood pressure studies (based on Paediatric Task Force database) [22] Overweight 1–17 Unspecified 36,914 Auscul. P1, P5 Sex, height First measurement Norms for childhood BP among normal-weight children
Sarganas [23] Germany Healthy children and adolescents Chronic conditions or medication influencing growth or BP. Overweight (BMI > 90th centile) 3–17 Community setting 14,836 Oscill. P1, P5 Sex, height Mean of two measurements Fifth percentile of BP according to age, sex and height
Satoh et al. [24] Japan Full-term singleton newborns Twin newborns, miscellaneous abnormalities, missing Apgar score, condition during BP measurement 0 Hospital 2628 Oscill. P5 Sex First measurement Estimate BP and pulse rate in healthy newborns
Schwandt et al. [25] Germany German parents Metabolic, cardiovascular, endocrine, malignant disorder, specific medication, non-German ethnicity 3–18 Community setting 22,051 Auscul. P3, P5 Sex, overweight and non-overweight Mean of two measurements Develop auscultatory BP growth charts
Weiss et al. [26] USA Non-institutionalized children x 6–11 Hospital: one visit 7119 Auscul. P5 Sex, race Mean of two measurements Distribution of BP level 6–11 years
  1. Auscul auscultatory, BP blood pressure, EU European Union, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, Oscill oscillometric, P1 first centile, P3 third centile, P5 fifth centile, USA United States of America