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Table 1 Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics in capillary refill time responders and non-responders to volume expansion

From: Capillary refill time variation induced by passive leg raising predicts capillary refill time response to volume expansion

Characteristics All (n = 34) CRT responders (n = 15) CRT non-responders (n = 19) p value
Anthropometry
 Age, years 62 [54, 69] 59 [46, 71] 64 [57, 68] 0.435
 Sex, male/female, n 25/9 13/2 12/7  
 Weight, kg 71 [62, 80] 75 [67, 81] 70 [61, 78] 0.289
Severity scores
 SOFA 8 [6, 11] 9 [7, 12] 8 [6, 10] 0.485
 SAPS2 42 [33, 51] 44 [33, 56] 41 [34, 48] 0.266
Circulatory failure aetiology
 Sepsis 11 3 8 0.271
 SIRS 15 8 7 0.489
 Cardiogenic shock 8 4 4 1.0
Metabolic and peripheral perfusion
 Mottling score 1 [0, 2] 1 [0, 2] 1 [0, 1] 0.702
 Capillary refill time, s 2.9 [2.4, 3.7] 3.6 [2.8, 6] 2.6 [2.3, 3.3] 0.021
 PCO2gap, kPa 1.1 [0.8, 1.7] 1.4 [1.1, 1.8] 0.8 [0.7, 1.1] 0.007
 Oxygen delivery, mL min−1 m−2 337 [272, 417] 313 [253, 361] 355 [309, 440] 0.228
 Oxygen uptake, mL min−1 m−2 101 [84, 116] 97 [64, 119] 103 [88, 109] 0.383
 Modified RQ, mmHg mL−1 2.6 [2.0, 5.4] 3.5 [2.4, 6.8] 2.6 [2.0, 4.0] 0.118
 Oxygen extraction ratio, % 30 [25, 35] 35 [26, 40] 28 [23, 30] 0.051
 Lactate, mmol L−1 2.0 [1.2, 3.8] 2.0 [1.4, 3.8] 2.0 [1.1, 3.5] 0.578
Thermodilution
 Cardiac index, L min−1 m−2 2.6 [2.1, 3.1] 2.3 [2.0, 3.0] 2.6 [2.4, 3.2] 0.499
 Global end-diastolic volume index, mL m−2 710 [549, 827] 667 [506, 826] 726 [606, 823] 0.492
 Extravascular lung water index, mL kg−1 9.1 [7.0, 12.0] 9.2 [6.5, 12.5] 9.1 [7.2, 11.5] 0.931
 Cardiac function index 3.6 [2.9, 4.3] 3.6 [2.8, 4.3] 3.6 [3.1, 4.3] 0.718
 Pulmonary vascular permeability index 1.8 [1.4, 2.6] 1.8 [1.5, 2.7] 1.7 [1.3, 2.5] 0.772
 Stroke volume variation, % 13 [9, 17] 14 [11, 17] 13 [8, 17] 0.676
Haemodynamics
 Heart rate, cycle/min 95 [75, 110] 96 [73, 104] 93 [78, 112] 0.395
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 68 [61, 72] 70 [62, 75] 67 [61, 71] 0.357
 Systolic arterial pressure, mmHg 102 [91, 118] 97 [90, 116] 104 [94, 116] 0.795
 Diastolic arterial pressure, mmHg 51 [43, 57] 52 [46, 57] 51 [41, 56] 0.615
 Pulse pressure, mmHg 53 [40, 65] 49 [36, 65] 53 [41, 64] 0.532
 EtCO2, mmHg 36 [32, 45] 34 [32, 44] 37 [31, 46] 0.737
 Central venous pressure, mmHg 7 [4, 11] 8 [7, 11] 6 [3, 9] 0.186
Drugs
 Norepinephrine, μg kg−1 min−1 0.22 [0.10, 0.51] 0.17 [0.08, 0.76] 0.23 [0.11, 0.49] 0.798
 Dobutamine, μg kg−1 min−1 4 [0, 6] 4 [0, 5] 4 [0, 7] 0.531
 Epinephrine, μg kg−1 min−1 0.00 [0.00, 0.04] 0.00 [0.00, 0.00] 0.00 [0.00, 0.05] 0.472
Ventilation
 Tidal volume, mL kg−1 of ideal body weight 6 [6, 7] 6 [6, 7] 6 [6, 8] 0.702
 Respiratory rate, cycles min−1 24 [20, 27] 24 [23, 27] 22 [17, 29] 0.357
 Positive end-expiratory pressure, cmH2O 5 [5, 6] 6 [5, 6] 5 [5 6] 0.937
 FiO2, % 40 [30, 60] 40 [36, 51] 40 [30, 60] 0.607
 Driving pressure, cmH2O 12 [9, 15] 12 [10, 14] 12 [9, 15] 0.806
  1. Values are median [percentile 25–75] or number. Wilcoxon test and Fisher’s exact test were used to calculate p value. CRT responders are defined as patients showing a decrease of at least 25% of the capillary refill time after volume expansion
  2. CRT capillary refill time, EtCO2 end-tidal carbon dioxide, FiO2 fraction of inspired dioxygen, Modified RQ modified respiratory quotient defined as PCO2gap/difference in arterio-venous content in oxygen, PCO2gap veno-arterial difference in carbon dioxide partial pressure, SAPS2 Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment