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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants by sex

From: Sex-specific differences in survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide, population-based observational study

CharacteristicMenWomenP value
n = 217,173 (56.2%)n = 169,362 (43.8%)
Year0.95
 201353,459 (24.6)41,693 (24.6) 
 201455,123 (25.4)42,925 (25.4) 
 201554,061 (24.9)42,294 (24.9) 
 201654,530 (25.1)42,450 (25.1) 
Geographic Japanese regions
 Rural area*54,143 (24.9)43,512 (25.7)< 0.001
Age, years< 0.001
 Mean (SD)74.3 (14.1)80.3 (13.2) 
 Median (25–75%)77 (67–85)84 (75–90) 
Etiology of cardiac arrest
 Presumed cardiac cause152,531 (70.2)116,994 (69.1)< 0.001
Initial shockable rhythm23,159 (10.7)7248 (4.3)< 0.001
Bystander witness status< 0.001
 No witness129,709 (59.7)107,825 (63.7) 
 Family member57,967 (26.7)35,544 (21.0) 
 Nonfamily member29,497 (13.6)25,993 (15.3) 
Dispatcher CPR instruction
 Offered126,685 (58.3)105,020 (62.0)< 0.001
Bystander CPR107,618 (49.6)95,609 (56.4)< 0.001
Use of advanced airway management94,481 (43.5)69,107 (40.8)< 0.001
Epinephrine administration44,648 (20.6)28,120 (16.6)< 0.001
Call-to-response time, min< 0.001
 Mean (SD)9.2 (3.9)9.1 (3.6) 
 Median (25–75%)8 (7–11)8 (7–11) 
Call-to-hospital arrival time, min< 0.001
 Mean (SD)31.8 (10.4)31.5 (10.1) 
 Median (25–75%)31 (25–38)31 (25–38) 
1-month outcome
 Survival12,373 (5.7)5,561 (3.3)< 0.001
 CPC 1 or 26936 (3.2)2,327 (1.4)< 0.001
  1. Values are reported as n (%) unless indicated otherwise. CPC, Cerebral Performance Category; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; SD, standard deviation
  2. *The rural area is constituted 19 prefectures with population of less than 200 inhabitants per km2