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Table 1 Characteristics of the functional hemodynamic tests and of the fluid challenges

From: Functional hemodynamic tests: a systematic review and a metanalysis on the reliability of the end-expiratory occlusion test and of the mini-fluid challenge in predicting fluid responsiveness

StudiesGeneral characteristicsFC characteristics
PatientsFCsMonthsVentilatory settingFHT: descriptionVolume infused (ml)Time (min)Rate (ml/min)Reference variableType of fluidHemodynamic monitoringFR (%)
Operating roomGuinot et al. [33]4242NSCMVEEOT: ventilation interrupted for 15 s5001050SV > 15%RingerCardioQ67
Biais et al. [34]41416CMVEEOT: ventilation interrupted for 30 s2501025SVI ≥ 10%SalineProAQT51
Biais et al. [35]448812CMVMini-FC: 100 ml in 120 s2501025SVI ≥ 10%SalineProAQT32
Guinot et al. [36]73736SBMini-FC: 100 ml in 60 s5001050SV > 15%RingerNICCOMO37
Preisman et al. [37]1870NSCMVRSVT: decrease in SAP after successive incremental pressure-controlled breaths (10, 20, and 30 cmH2O)250550SVI ≥ 15%Poligeline 3.5%PiCCO46
Biais et al. [38]282812CMVLRM: 30 cmH20/30 s2501025SVI ≥ 10%SalineProAQT57
De Broca et al. [39]60609CMVLRM: 25 cmH20/25 s5001050SV ≥ 15%RingerCardioQ62
Intensive care unitWu et al. [40]50508CMVMini-FC: 50 ml in 10 s5001533CO ≥ 15%Crystalloids (undefined)TTE54
Smorenberg et al. [41]2121NSCMVMini-FC: 100 ml in 120 s5002025CO > 10%Hydroxyethyl starch 6%Modelflow/PulseCO62
Muller et al. [29]393910CMVMini-FC: 100 ml in 60 s5001533.3VTI ≥ 15%6% HESTTE54
Monge Garcia et al. [42]30306SBAirway pressure elevated up to 30 cmH20 for 10 s5003016.6SVI ≥ 15%6% HESFlow-Trac37
Perel et al. [28]1414NSCMVRSVT: decrease in SAP after successive incremental pressure-controlled breaths (5,10, 15, and 20 cmH2O)7/kg30NACI ≥ 15%Plasma expander (undefined)PAC57
Yonis et al. [43]333340CMVEEOT: ventilation interrupted for 15 s5001533.3CI ≥ 15%Crystalloids (undefined)PiCCO45
Xiao-ting et al. [44]48488CMVMini-FC: 100 ml in 60 s5001533.3CI ≥ 10%SalinePiCCO71
Mallat et al. [45]4949NSCMVMini-FC: 100 ml in 60 s5001533.3CI ≥ 15%4% albuminPiCCO45
Georges et al. [46]5050NSACV(V); no SEEEOT: ventilation interrupted for 12 s5001533.3CO ≥ 15%SalineTTE56
Wilkman et al. [47]2020NSCMVPEEP elevated from 10 to 20 cmH2O for 60–120 s6/kg30NACO ≥ 15%Succinilgelatine 4%TEE30
Jozwiak et al. [48]303014ACV(V); no SEEEOT: ventilation interrupted for 15 s5001050CI > 15%SalinePiCCO50
Monnet et al. [23]3434NSACV(V); SEEEOT: ventilation interrupted for 15 s5001050CI > 15%SalinePiCCO68
Myatra et al. [49]2030NSACV(V); no SEVt raised up from 6 to 8 ml/kg for 1 min7/kg10NACI > 15%SalinePiCCO53
Monnet et al. [50]5454NSACV(V); no SEEEOT: ventilation interrupted for 15 s5002025CI ≥ 15%SalinePiCCO55
  1. FC fluid challenge, CMV controlled mechanical ventilation, ACV(V) volume-assist controlled mechanical ventilation, SB spontaneously breathing patients, SE spontaneous efforts, EEOT end-expiratory occlusion test, Vt tidal volume, MV mechanical ventilation, LRM lung recruitment maneuver, RSVT respiratory systolic variation test, SAP systolic arterial pressure, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, CO cardiac output, CI cardiac index, SV stroke volume, SVI stroke volume index, FR fluid responsiveness, HES 6% hydroxyethyl starch 6%, TEE trans-esophageal echocardiography, TEE transthoracic echocardiography, PAC pulmonary artery catheter; NA not applicable; CardioQ, Deltex Medical Ltd., Chichester, UK; PiCCO/ProAQT, PULSION Medical Systems; FloTrac, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA; NICCOMO, non-invasive continuous cardiac output, Imedex, France; PulseCO, LiDCOltg, Cambridge, UK; Modelflow, FMS, Amsterdam, the Netherlands