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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Association of sublingual microcirculation parameters and endothelial glycocalyx dimensions in resuscitated sepsis

Variable Healthy individuals Septic patients p value
Number of participants (n (%)) 10 30
Female sex (n (%)) 5 (50) 7 (23) 0.11
Age (years, median (IQR)) 30 (27–34) 67 (58–80) < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2, median (IQR)) 23.6 (21.3–26.1) 25.3 (21.7–28.2) 0.34
Duration of sepsis at study inclusion (days, median (IQR))* 2 (1–5)
SOFA score (median (IQR)) 9 (5–12)
Organ replacement therapy (n (%)) 18 (60)
Mechanical ventilation (n (%)) 17 (56.7)
Acute dialysis (n (%)) 5 (16.7)
Vasopressors (n (%)) 20 (66.7)
Norepinephrine dose (μg/kg/min) 0.05 (0–0.16)
Septic shock (n (%))** 3 (10)
Hospital mortality (n (%)) 10 (33.3)
CCI score (median (IQR)) 1.5 (0.8–2.3)
Comorbidities (n (%))
 Chronic respiratory disease 8 (26.7)
 Congestive heart failure 16 (53.3)
 Chronic hepatic disease 3 (10)
 Dialysis-dependent CKD 1 (3.3)
 Malignancy 5 (16.7)
 Diabetes mellitus 5 (16.7)
Focus of infection (n (%))
 Respiratory tract 17 (56.7)
 Prosthesis 4 (13.3)
 Gastrointestinal tract 3 (10)
 Unknown 2 (6.7)
 Skin 2 (6.7)
 Urinary tract 1 (3.3)
 Heart 1 (3.3)
Endothelial glycocalyx (median (IQR))
 PBR 5–25 (μm) 2.04 (1.97–2.10) 2.34 (2.21–2.46) < 0.0001
 Syndecan-1 (ng/ml) 21.3 (13.2–56.7) 204.5 (114.2–358.9) < 0.0001
Microcirculation data (median (IQR))
 TVD (mm/mm2) 18.88 (17.56–21.68) 19.17 (17.06–20.24) 0.87
 PVD (mm/mm2) 18.54 (17.19–21.26) 16.97 (14.96–19.87) 0.08
 PPV (%) 98.73 (96.55–99.80) 92.58 (85.63–97.14) 0.0004
 MFI (points) 2.93 (2.89–2.96) 2.74 (2.58–2.91) 0.002
 HI (%) 0.04 (0.01–0.06) 0.08 (0.03–0.16) 0.04
Macrocirculation data (median (IQR))
 MAP (mmHg) 94.2 (85.4–102.4) 73.0 (67.5–84.6) 0.0001
 Heart rate (pulse/min) 73 (65–83) 91 (81–101) 0.0004
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 14 (13–15) 20 (17–26) < 0.0001
 Temperature (°C) 36.6 (36.5–36.8) 37 (36.4–37.7) 0.12
Laboratory data (median (IQR))
 CRP (mg/dl) 0.5 23.2 (16.9–33.3) < 0.0001
 IL-6 (ng/ml) 2.0 (2.0–2.5) 367.0 (96.0–1121.0) < 0.0001
 PCT (ng/ml) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 9.08 (1.24–48.23) < 0.0001
 pH 7.42 (7.36–7.48)
 Lactate (mmol/l) 0.90 (0.65–1.20) 1.70 (0.98–2.00) 0.001
 Albumin (g/dl) 4.8 (4.5–5.0) 2.5 (2.0–3.0) < 0.0001
 Total serum protein (g/dl) 7.1 (6.8–7.5) 5.5 (5.1–6.0) < 0.0001
  1. p value was calculated between healthy individuals and ICU patients
  2. BMI body mass index, CCI score Charlson Comorbidity Index score, CKD chronic kidney disease, CNS central nervous system, CRP C-reactive protein, HI heterogeneity index, IL-6 interleukin-6, IQR interquartile range, MAP mean arterial pressure, MFI microvascular flow index, PBR perfused boundary region, PCT procalcitonin, PPV proportion of perfused vessels, PVD perfused vessel density, RBC red blood cell, SOFA score Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, TVD total vessel density, WBC white blood cell
  3. *n = 9 of 30 patients (30%) were included within 24 h after fulfilling Sepsis-3 criteria
  4. **Septic shock: vasopressors required to maintain MAP ≥ 65 mmHg and serum lactate > 2 mmol/l.