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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics and laboratory data on admission in the unmatched (a) and matched groups (b)

From: Influence of contrast media on renal function and outcomes in patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury: a propensity-matched cohort study

(a) C group (n = 132) NC group (n = 207) P value
Age, years (IQR) 70.5 (60–78) 71 (61–78) 0.38
Male, n (%) 70 (54.4) 124 (58.8) 0.32
Site of infection, n (%)    < 0.01
 Central nervous system 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 0.39
 Thoracic, pneumonia 14 (10.6) 54 (26.1) < 0.01
 Abdominal 82 (62.1) 95 (45.9) < 0.01
 Neck 12 (9.1) 1 (0.5) < 0.01
 Soft tissue 8 (6.1) 10 (4.8) 0.62
 Urinary tract 2 (1.5) 17 (8.2) 0.01
 CRBSI 0 (0.0) 4 (1.9) 0.16
 Others 13 (9.9) 26 (12.6) 0.37
Nephrotoxic agents, n (%)
 Aminoglycoside 1 (0.8) 3 (1.5) 1.00
 Vancomycin 42 (31.8) 60 (29.0) 0.58
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Ischemic heart disease 17 (12.9) 21 (10.1) 0.46
 Chronic kidney disease 17 (12.9) 39 (18.8) 0.15
 Premorbid Cr (mg/dL) (IQR) 0.85 (0.561–0.97), n = 60 0.8 (0.51–1.08), n = 128 0.12
 eGFR < 30 (%) 3 (5.0) 20 (15.6) 0.05
 Diabetes mellitus 35 (26.5) 63 (30.4) 0.44
 Immunosuppressants 28 (21.2) 72 (34.8) 0.01
 APACHE II score (IQR) 24 (18–30) 26 (20–32) 0.17
 SOFA score (IQR) 8 (6–10.8) 9 (6–11) 0.14
 SOFA (non-renal SOFA) 7 (5–9) 7 (5–9) 0.89
 SOFA (renal SOFA) 1 (0–1) 1 (1–2) < 0.01
 DIC, n (%) 69 (53.5) 12 (60.81) 0.19
 Septic shock, n (%) 72 (54.6) 104 (50.2) 0.44
AKI stage on admission, n (%)    < 0.01
 Stage 1 63 (47.7) 55 (26.6)  
 Stage 2 37 (28.0) 49 (23.7)  
 Stage 3 32 (24.2) 103 (49.8)  
Lab data on admission
 WBC (109 cells/L) (IQR) 10.4 (4.8–16.6) 9.5 (4.8–14.9) 0.17
 Hb (g/dL) (IQR) 10.5 (9.1–12.4) 9.8 (8.4–11.5) < 0.01
 Platelet (104 cells/μL) (IQR) 14.1 (8.6–20.4) 12.7 (7.4–18.4) 0.67
 AT III (%) (IQR) 51.5 (38.9–62.4) 52.1 (41.9–63.2) 0.46
 Protein C (%) (IQR) 45.0 (33.2–66.5) 47.1 (34.7–60.2) 0.74
 Albumin (mg/dL) (IQR) 2.3 (2–2.8) 2.3 (1.9–2.8) 0.14
 Bilirubin (mg/dL) (IQR) 1.12 (0.63–1.89) 0.81 (0.58–1.46) 0.52
 PCT (ng/mL) (IQR) 11.4 (2.0–63.7) 13.5 (3.3–63.9) 0.77
 CRP (mg/dL) (IQR) 13.4 (6.8–24.4) 15.4 (8.1–25.0) 0.51
 Cr (mg/dL) (IQR) 1.38 (1.01–1.96) 1.91 (1.33–2.98) < 0.01
 BUN (mg/dL) (IQR) 31.0 (21.3–41.8) 44.0 (28.0–65.0) < 0.01
 UA (mg/dL) (IQR) 5.4 (4.3–6.9) 6.4 (5.1–8.5) < 0.01
 Cystatin C (mg/L) (IQR) 1.58 (1.21–2.12) 2.01 (1.46–2.84) 0.01
 BNP (pg/mL) (IQR) 172.5 (72.3–546.1) 208.3 (65.4–538.5) 0.68
 Lactate (mmol/L) (IQR) 2.6 (1.5–4.6) 2.4 (1.5–4.1) 0.20
(b) C group (n = 100) NC group (n = 100) P value
 Age, years (IQR) 70.5 (61–79.8) 71 (60–79) 0.95
 Male, n (%) 52 (52.0) 57 (57.0) 0.48
Site of infection, n (%)    0.86
 Central nervous system 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)  
 Thoracic, pneumonia 13 (13.0) 12 (12.0) 0.83
 Abdominal 66 (66.0) 70 (70.0) 0.54
 Neck 1 (1.0) 1 (1.0) 1.00
 Soft tissue 8 (8.0) 7 (7.0) 0.79
 Urinary tract 2 (2.0) 4 (4.0) 0.68
 CRBSI 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Others 10 (10.0) 7 (7.0) 0.45
Nephrotoxic agents, n (%)
 Aminoglycoside 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 0.32
 Vancomycin 33 (33.0) 32 (32.0) 0.88
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Ischemic heart disease 14 (14.0) 9 (9.0) 0.27
 Chronic kidney disease 14 (14.0) 14 (14.0) 1.00
 Premorbid Cr (mg/dL) (IQR) 0.85 (0.62–0.96), n = 50 0.76 (0.57–0.92), n = 48 0.20
 eGFR < 30 (%) 1 (2.0) 1 (2.1) 0.98
 Diabetes mellitus 26 (26.0) 28 (28.0) 0.75
 Immunosuppressants 25 (25.0) 22 (22.0) 0.62
 APACHE II score (IQR) 24 (19–30) 23 (18–29) 0.20
 SOFA score (IQR) 8 (6–11) 8 (5.3–10) 0.97
 SOFA (non-renal SOFA) 7 (5–9.8) 7 (4–9) 0.84
 SOFA (renal SOFA) 1 (0–2) 1 (1–2) 0.60
 DIC, n (%) 55 (55.0) 57 (57.0) 0.90
 Septic shock, n (%) 54 (54.0) 59 (59.0) 0.48
AKI stage on admission, n (%)    0.20
 Stage 1 44 (44.0) 32 (32.0)  
 Stage 2 26 (26.0) 29 (29.0)  
 Stage 3 30 (30.0) 39 (39.0)  
Lab data on admission
 WBC (109cells/L) (IQR) 10.9 (4.4–15.5) 8.7 (4.8–14.8) 0.18
 Hb (g/dL) (IQR) 10.4 (9.0–12.0) 10.9 (9.2–12.0) 0.36
 Platelet (104cells/μL) (IQR) 13.0 (7.4–20.6) 12.8 (7.7–17.8) 0.74
 AT (%) (IQR) 50.1 (37.8–60.1) 49.1 (39.2–61.1) 0.82
 Protein C (%) (IQR) 44.5 (29.9–61.6) 43.2 (32.3–56.8) 0.66
 Albumin (mg/dL) (IQR) 2.3 (2.0–2.8) 2.5 (1.9–2.9) 0.99
 Bilirubin (mg/dL) (IQR) 1.04 (0.62–1.86) 0.91 (0.66–1.61) 0.78
 PCT (ng/mL) (IQR) 13.1 (2.2–76.7) 25.5 (5.3–86.9) 0.57
 CRP (mg/dL) (IQR) 13.0 (7.2–24.4) 14.4 (8.0–25.0) 0.63
 Cr (mg/dL) (IQR) 1.47 (1.03–2.20) 1.63 (1.20–2.32) 0.90
 BUN (mg/dL) (IQR) 33.5 (24.3–43.8) 38.0 (25–51.0) 0.61
 UA (mg/dL) (IQR) 5.7 (4.4–7.0) 6.1 (4.8–7.3) 0.75
 Cystatin C (mg/L) (IQR) 1.68 (1.28–2.27) 1.62 (1.23–2.13) 0.14
 BNP (pg/mL) (IQR) 184 (73.2–559) 144.9 (55.6–427.7) 0.06
 Lactate (mmol/L) (IQR) 2.4 (1.5–4.9) 2.6 (1.7–4.1) 0.49
  1. Italicized P values represent significant differences between the C and NC groups
  2. Abbreviations: CRBSI catheter-related bloodstream infection, APACHE II score Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, SOFA score Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, AKI acute kidney injury, WBC white blood cell, Hb hemoglobin, AT antithrombin, PCT procalcitonin, CRP C-reactive protein, UA urinary acid, Cr creatinine, BUN blood urea nitrogen, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, IQR interquartile range