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Table 1 ABCD sequence

From: ELS (Ethical Life Support): a new teaching tool for medical ethics

Section Learning objectives Topics/tools
A—Acknowledge • Identifying the ethical issue
• Facts vs values
• Ethics and healthcare ethics
• Introduction and agenda
• The trolley problem and variations (lecture, discussion)
B—Be aware • Defining boundaries
• Assessing roles and responsibilities: who decides?
• Overview of the law and professional self-regulation (lecture and discussion)
• Two short clinical cases (group discussions and role-playing)
C—Communicate • Acknowledging the ownership of space, time, and language
• Fostering good communication and respect
• Short videos, lecture, and discussion
• Small group exercises
• Role-playing
D—Deal • Managing complexity
• End-of-life decisions
• Tolerating uncertainty
• Medical errors, conflicts, and disagreement (lecture and discussion)
• Multi-step clinical case (small group discussion)
• Take-home messages