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Table 3 Different baseline characteristics of patient responder and non-responder to vitamin D supplementation on day 3 after study drug administration. Odds ratios for 28-day mortality for vitamin D supplementation in a bivariate analysis with an interaction term for the covariates. If the interaction term was not significant, the odds ratio of treatment adjusted for covariate without interaction term was reported

From: Trying to identify who may benefit most from future vitamin D intervention trials: a post hoc analysis from the VITDAL-ICU study excluding the early deaths

  Vitamin D supplementation group (N = 204)*
Responder (N = 133) Non-responder (N = 71) p value
Age, years 64 ± 16 61 ± 13 0.19
Body mass index 27.3 ± 4.7 27.2 ± 4.9 0.87
25-Hydroxyvitamin D, ng/ml 13.2 ± 4.5 12.3 ± 4.8 0.19
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D, pg/ml 48 (40–57) 34 (24–44) 0.05
Charlson Comorbidity Index 2.8 (2.3–3.2) 3 (2.5–3.5) 0.59
SAPS 2 33 (30–36) 29 (26–32) 0.04
TISS 36 (35–37) 41 (39–42) < 0.01
Male/female gender, N/N 86/47 45/26 0.86
Chronic kidney disease, N (%) 35 (26.3) 18 (25.4) 0.88
Surgical/medical and neuro admission N(%)/N(%) 64 (48)/69 (52) 55 (77)/16 (33) < 0.01
Chronic liver disease, N (%) 13 (9.8) 16 (22.5) 0.01
COPD, N (%) 27 (20.3) 10 (14) 0.27
Ischemic heart disease—chronic heart failure, N (%) 67 (50.4) 36 (50.7) 0.96
Malignant disease, N (%) 13 (9.8) 6 (8.5) 0.76
Mechanical ventilation at enrollment, N (%) 78 (58.6) 55 (77.5) 0.02
Use of vasopressor at enrollment, N (%) 57 (42.9) 47 (66.2) < 0.01
  1. Definition of responder to vitamin D supplementation: plasma level increase of > 10 ng/ml on day 3 after study drug administration
  2. *The analysis is performed just in the treatment group since in the placebo group, there were no patients classified as responders according to our criteria