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Table 2 Comparison of Patients in PROGRESS with Patients in AQUA and GenIMS

From: Sequential organ failure assessment score is an excellent operationalization of disease severity of adult patients with hospitalized community acquired pneumonia – results from the prospective observational PROGRESS study

   PROGRESS AQUA GenIMS
  N, number of cases 1532 258,049 1886
Age, mean (sd) 59 (18.3) 73 (p = 6.9 × 10− 151)1 68 (p = 5.1 × 10−67) 1
Age > =60 in % (N) 55% (836) 82% (p = 2.1 × 10− 177)2 NA
Male sex 59% (902) 57% (p = 0.13)2 52% (p = 9 × 10−5)2
Comorbidities and other risk factors Nursery home resident 1.5% (23) 20.7% (p = 8.5 × 10−76)2 6.2% (p = 1.7 × 10−11)2
Smoking history 66% (942) NA 66% (p = 0.84)2
Antibiotic treatment before admission to hospital, missings excluded 419 (28%) NA NA
Antibiotic treatment during the last 5 days, missings excluded 224 (15%) NA NA
Antibiosis before admission (in days), mean (sd) median 0.77 (2.4) 0 NA 0.8 (1.4) 0 (p = 0.6169)1
Chron. Lung disease 30% (458) NA 26% (p = 0.014)2
Chron. cardiovascular disease 26% (399) NA 26% (p = 0.70)2
Chron. renal disease 10% (153) NA NA
Chron. liver disease 2.2% (33) NA NA
Chron. cerebrovascular disease 5.7% (87) NA NA
Tumor disease 8.8% (134) NA NA
Any of these comorbidities 52% (789) NA NA
Chron. bed confinement 0.9% (14) 21.4% (p = 2.5 × 10−84)2 NA
Condition/ treatment at enrollment Disoriented* 5.8% (88) 32.7% (p = 4.7 × 10−110)2 NA
Low blood pressure*, (Systolic < 90 mmHg or Diastolic < =60 mmHg) 19% (288) NA NA
High respiratory rate*, (> = 30 1/min) 6.6% (62) NA NA
Vasopressors*, (> = 30 1/min) 2.9% (44) NA NA
ICU and ventilation Mechanical ventilation within 28d, missings treated as ‘No’ 9.5% (145) 9.2% (p = 0.1618)2 7.3% (p = 0.024)2
Mechanical ventilation within 28d, missings excluded 17.4% (145) 9.2% (p = 2.8 × 10−20)2 7.3% (p = 2.2 × 10− 15)2
ICU within 28d, missings treated as ‘No’ 17% (259) NA 16% (p = 0.51)2
ICU within 28d, missings excluded 24% (259) NA 16% (p = 1.2 × 10−07)2
Scores and Endpoints Length of hospital stay (LOHS) in (d): mean (sd) median 10.0 (15.5) 8 NA 7.3 (5.0) 6 (p = 9.7 × 10−12) 1
LOHS (1–7/8–14/15–21/> 21) in % 46.3/40.7/7.8/5.2 42.5/38.6/10.7/6.8 (p = 1 × 10−04)3 NA
Primary endpoint 10.1% (155) NA NA
In-hospital mortality 2.3% (33) 13.0% (p = 1.3 × 10−15)2 NA
28-day mortality 2.3% (35) NA NA
90-day mortality 3.5% (54) NA 11.5% (p = 2.4 × 10−17)2
CRB-65* (0–4) in % 41.3/40.3/14.8/3.4/0.1 17.2/52.5/23.1/4.5/2.7 (p = 2.1 × 10−88)3 NA
CURB-65* (0–5) in % 37.0/30.0/21.2/9.2/2.5/0.1 NA NA
Halm* mean, (sd) 1.8 (1.1) NA NA
IDSA/ATS* mean, (sd) 2.0 (1.4) NA NA
PSI* (1–5) in % 23.4/22.9/20.9/23.9/9.0 NA 30.7/25.2/33.4/10.8 (p = 1.9 × 10−17)3
qSOFA* (0–3) in % 44.8/44.8/9.8/0.7 NA NA
SCAP* mean, (sd) 7.8 (7.5) NA NA
SIRS* (1/2/3) in % 13.2/80.2/6.7 NA NA
SMART-COP* mean, (sd) 2.1 (1.6) NA NA
SOFA* mean, (sd) 2.9 (2.2) NA NA
  1. Characteristics of the PROGRESS patient population compared to the general population of hospitalized CAP patients in Germany (AQUA) and another large observational study of CAP patients (GenIMS)
  2. NA data not available
  3. * = value at the time of enrollment; ** = classes I and II are pooled together
  4. 1 = p-value of a one sample t-test; 2 = p-value of a chi-square test; 3 = p-value of a Mann-Whitney U-test