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Table 1 Comparisons of the baseline characteristics between patients with and without diuretic use

From: Early diuretic use and mortality in critically ill patients with vasopressor support: a propensity score-matching analysis

Variables All patients
(n = 7828)
No diuretic use
(n = 6359)
Diuretic use
(n = 1469)
P
Age (years) 67.0 ± 14.2 66.5 ± 14.5 70.0 ± 12.3 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 4588 (58.6) 3749 (58.9) 839 (57.1) 0.196
Weight (kg) 82.3 ± 22.6 81.7 ± 22.3 84.9 ± 24.0 < 0.001
Emergency, n (%) 6072 (77.5) 5075 (79.8) 998 (67.9) < 0.001
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 2390 (30.5) 1850 (29.1) 540 (36.7) < 0.001
 Hypertension 3831 (48.9) 3025 (47.5) 806 (54.8) < 0.001
 Cardiac disease 3431 (43.8) 2603 (41.2) 848 (57.7) < 0.001
 Acute or chronic heart failure 2986 (38.1) 2329 (36.6) 657 (44.7) < 0.001
 Intracranial hemorrhage 273 (3.5) 249 (3.9) 24 (1.6) < 0.001
Fluid balance
 Fluid intake (ml/kg/48 h) 110.3 ± 73.9 113.8 ± 77.1 95.5 ± 55.6 < 0.001
 Urine output (ml/kg/48 h) 49.0 ± 36.6 48.5 ± 38.2 51.2 ± 28.4 0.009
 Fluid balance (ml/kg/48 h) 45.1 ± 76.7 49.9 ± 79.7 24.2 ± 57.9 < 0.001
MAP after ICU admission
 MAP on ICU admission (mmHg) 77.4 ± 17.3 77.7 ± 17.6 76.2 ± 15.8 0.002
 Mean MAP (mmHg) 74.3 ± 8.1 74.6 ± 8.2 73.0 ± 7.1 < 0.001
 Maximum MAP (mmHg) 115.6 ± 40.1 115.9 ± 38.7 114.4 ± 45.5 0.19
 Minimum MAP (mmHg) 48.2 ± 14.7 48.3 ± 14.5 47.7 ± 15.3 0.139
Disease severity scores, median (IQR)
 SOFA score on ICU admission 6 (4–8) 6 (4–8) 6 (4–9) 0.0122
 Maximum SOFA score during ICU stay 10 (8–13) 10 (8–13) 11 (8–13) 0.2377
 SAPS II on ICU admission 41 (32–52) 41 (32–52) 41 (34–51) 0.0151
 GCS score on ICU admission 7 (3–14) 8 (3–14) 4 (3–11) < 0.001
 Maximum GCS score during ICU stay 15 (15–15) 15 (15–15) 15 (15–15) 0.001
Biochemical indices
 Maximum serum creatinine level (mg/dl) 1.87 ± 1.75 1.88 ± 1.81 1.83 ± 1.45 0.254
 Maximum white blood cell count (109/l) 18.5 ± 11.5 18.7 ± 11.8 17.5 ± 9.9 < 0.001
 Maximum serum lactate level (mmol/l) 3.7 ± 3.2 (n = 6168) 3.7 ± 3.4 (n = 4799) 3.5 ± 2.7 (n = 1369) 0.004
Oxygenation indexes
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 6646 (84.9) 5323 (83.7) 1323 (90.0) < 0.001
 Duration of mechanical ventilation (h) 98.2 ± 175.8 102.9 ± 181.8 77.8 ± 145.7 < 0.001
 PO2/FiO2 at ICU admission 258.0 ± 137.3 264.1 ± 140.2 232.6 ± 212.3 < 0.001
 Minimum PO2/FiO2 during ICU stay 156.2 ± 103.5 154.8 ± 104.5 161.8 ± 99.0 0.029
Clinical outcomes
 Hyponatremia, n (%)* 3100 (39.6) 2433 (38.2) 667 (45.4) < 0.001
 Hypokalemia, n (%)* 2981 (38.1) 2475 (38.9) 506 (34.4) 0.001
 Hypocalcemia, n (%)* 5569 (71.1) 4608 (72.4) 961 (65.4) < 0.001
 ICU LOS (days) 7.5 ± 8.5 7.7 ± 8.7 6.7 ± 7.4 < 0.001
 Hospital LOS (days) 13.7 ± 12.1 13.9 ± 12.6 12.5 ± 10.0 < 0.001
 AKI, n (%) 2358 (30.1) 1848 (29.1) 510 (34.7) < 0.001
 AKI stage 3, n (%) 1108 (14.1) 917 (14.4) 191 (13.0) 0.160
 Dialysis, n (%) 680 (8.7) 561 (8.8) 119 (8.1) 0.376
 Hospital mortality, n (%) 1337 (17.1) 1171 (18.4) 166 (11.3) < 0.001
  1. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise indicated
  2. AKI acute kidney injury, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, LOS length of stay, MAP mean arterial pressure, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
  3. * These three electrolyte disturbances were diagnosed according to the electrolyte value within 48 h after ICU admission
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