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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Mild decrease in heart rate during early phase of targeted temperature management following tachycardia on admission is associated with unfavorable neurological outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury: a post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

Variables Total (n = 79) Admission HR < 80 Admission HR 80–99 Admission HR ≥ 100 P value
%HR ≥ 18.6 %HR < 18.6 %HR ≥ 18.6 %HR < 18.6 %HR ≥ 18.6 %HR < 18.6
(n = 7) (n = 23) (n = 11) (n = 11) (n = 22) (n = 5)
Age (years) 40 (21–57) 27 (17–57) 46 (22–62) 55 (51–68) 21 (17–45) 28 (21–55) 54 (28–63) 0.02
Male sex (%) 54 (70.1) 6 (100) 16 (69.6) 7 (63.6) 6 (60.0) 17 (77.3) 2 (40.0) 0.31
Vital signs
 SBP on admission (mmHg) 140 (110–170) 154 (130–160) 160 (120–186) 148 (130–187) 112 (100–146) 131 (109–166) 140 (109–151) 0.06
 SBP at day 1 (mmHg) 124 (108–145) 132 (116–143) 124 (104–145) 138 (120–147) 126 (110–146) 119 (105–150) 120 (103–147) 0.87
 GCS score 6 (4–7) 6 (5–7) 6 (5–7) 6 (4–7) 5 (4–7) 6 (4–6.3) 5 (4–7) 0.93
  4–5 34 (43.0) 3 (42.9) 9 (39.1) 5 (45.5) 6 (54.6) 8 (36.4) 3 (60.0) 0.88
  6–8 45 (57.0) 4 (57.1) 14 (60.9) 6 (54.6) 5 (45.5) 14 (63.6) 2 (40.0)  
 Unreactive pupil or pupils on admission (%) 38 (50.0) 6 (85.7) 12 (54.6) 7 (70.0) 4 (36.4) 6 (28.6) 3 (60.0) 0.07
 TCDB CT classification (%)         0.681
  Diffuse injury grade I 1 (1.8) 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  Diffuse injury grade II 21 (26.6) 2 (9.5) 5 (23.8) 3 (14.3) 1 (4.8) 9 (42.9) 1 (4.8)  
  Diffuse injury grade III 11 (13.9) 0 2 (18.2) 3 (27.3) 2 (18.2) 3 (27.3) 1 (9.1)  
  Diffuse injury grade IV 2 (2.5) 0 2 (100) 0 0 0 0  
  Evacuated mass 39 (49.4) 4 (10.3) 14 (35.9) 5 (12.8) 7 (18.0) 7 (18.0) 2 (5.1)  
  Nonevacuated mass 5 (6.3) 1 (20.0) 0 0 1 (20.0) 2 (40.0) 1 (20.0)  
 Surgical operation for TBI (%) 42 (53.2) 4 (57.1) 17 (73.9) 5 (45.5) 7 (63.6) 8 (36.4) 1 (20.0) 0.09
Hemodynamic parameter
 Initial ICP (mmHg) 14 (7–34) 15 (4–16) 24 (7–40) 13 (7–25) 34 (11–51) 11 (7–19) 8 (4–77) 0.40
 ICP at day 1 (mmHg) 14 (10–23) 12 (11–19) 15 (11–33) 13 (10–21) 31 (11–66) 13 (7–18) 18 (8–96) 0.19
ISS 25 (17–34) 24 (16–25) 25 (16–34) 24 (19–36) 34 (26–38) 29 (18–35) 25 (15–33) 0.04
AIS for head         0.24
 3–4 40 (54.1) 4 (57.1) 14 (63.6) 7 (70.0) 2 (20.0) 10 (50.0) 3 (60.0)  
 5 34 (46.0) 3 (42.9) 8 (36.4) 3 (30.0) 8 (80.0) 10 (50.0) 2 (40.0)  
Unfavorable outcomea (%) 42 (53.2) 3 (42.9) 9 (39.1) 5 (45.5) 7 (63.6) 13 (59.1) 5 (100) 0.18
Survive (%) 52 (65.8) 6 (85.7) 15 (65.2) 8 (72.7) 7 (63.6) 15 (68.2) 1 (20.0) 0.29
  1. Abbreviations: Admission HR Admission heart rate, %HR Heart rate change [admission HR – HR at day 1]/admission HR × 100, SBP Systolic blood pressure, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale TCDB Traumatic Coma Data Bank CT Computed tomography TBI Traumatic brain injury ICP Intracranial pressure ISS Injury Severity Score AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale TTM Targeted temperature management
  2. Values are presented as medians (IQR) or number of patients (percent)
  3. a Unfavorable outcome was defined as severe disability, persistent vegetative state, and death according to Glasgow Outcome Scale scores