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Table 2 Outcomes

From: Transfusion requirements after head trauma: a randomized feasibility controlled trial

Outcomes Total (44) Liberal (21) Restrictive (23) p value
Hemoglobin concentration, g/dL
 14-day, g/dL 8.8 ± 1.2 9.3 ± 1.3 8.4 ± 1.0 < 0.01
 Hospital admission 12.3 ± 2.0 12.0 ± 2.3 12.5 ± 1.8 0.53
 ICU admission 10.2 ± 1.4 10.1 ± 1.2 10.3 ± 1.6 0.55
 Pre-randomization 8.1 ± 0.8 7.9 ± 0.6 8.2 ± 1.0 0.34
Patients transfused 34 (77) 21 (100) 13 (57) < 0.01
Total transfused RBC units 101 66 35 0.02
RBC units per patient 2.3 ± 1.8 3.1 ± 1.6 1.5 ± 1.7 < 0.01
Other blood products 0 0 0 0
Mortality
 ICU death 8 (18) 1 (5) 7 (30) 0.05
 In-hospital death 8 (18) 1 (5) 7 (30) 0.05
Discharge functional outcome (GOS)
 Ordinal     0.06
  1 – Death 8 (18) 1 (5) 7 (30)  
  2 – Vegetative state 7 (16) 3 (14) 4 (17)  
  3 – Severe disability 6 (14) 4 (19) 2 (9)  
  4 – Moderate disability 16 (36) 9 (43) 7 (30)  
  5 – Good recovery 7 (16) 4 (19) 3 (13)  
 Dichotomous     0.22
  Unfavorable (GOS–3) 21 (48) 8 (38) 13 (57)  
  Favorable (GOS 4–5) 23 (52) 13 (62) 10 (44)  
Length of stay, days
 ICU 17 [10–28] 21 [9–30] 16 [13–18] 0.35
 Hospital 39 [23–66] 35 [21–63] 42 [23–76] 0.59
Functional outcome (GOS) at 6 months
 Ordinal     0.06
  1 – Death 9 (21) 2 (10) 7 (30)  
  2 – Vegetative state 5 (11) 2 (10) 3 (13)  
  3 – Severe disability 7 (16) 4 (19) 3 (13)  
  4 – Moderate disability 8 (18) 3 (14) 5 (22)  
  5 – Good recovery 15 (34) 10 (48) 5 (22)  
 Dichotomous     0.20
  Unfavorable (GOS–3) 21 (48) 8 (38) 13 (57)  
  Favorable (GOS 4–5) 23 (52) 13 (62) 10 (44)  
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation, median [25th–75th percentiles] or number (percentage)
  2. ICU intensive care unit, RBC red blood cell, GOS Glasgow Outcome Scale