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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Circulating adrenomedullin estimates survival and reversibility of organ failure in sepsis: the prospective observational multinational Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Sepsis and Septic Shock-1 (AdrenOSS-1) study

Patient characteristics All Bio-ADM < 70 pg/ml at admission Bio-ADM > 70 pg/ml at admission p Value* No.
Epidemiological data n = 583 n = 257 n = 326   
 Bio-ADM at admission (pg/ml) 80.5 [41.5–148.0] 36.9 [27.1–51.0] 136.7 [97.6–241.0] < 0.0001  
 Age (years) 66 [55–76] 64 [53–75] 67 [58–76] 0.0052  
 Male sex (n, %) 364 (62.4) 171 (66.5) 193 (59.2) 0.0837  
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.7 [22.9–30.1] 25.0 [22.3–28.4] 26.7 [23.2–31.6] 0.0013  
 Septic shock at admission 293 (50.3) 84 (32.7) 209 (64.1) < 0.0001  
Type of ICU admission     < 0.0001  
 Medical 473 (81.1) 230 (89.5) 243 (74.5)   
 Surgical - emergency procedure 93 (16) 21 (8.2) 72 (22.1)   
 Surgical - elective procedure 17 (2.9) 6 (2.3) 11 (3.4)   
Origin of sepsis     < 0.0001  
 Lung 218 (37.4) 129 (50.2) 89 (27.3)   
 Bloodstream 90 (15.4) 31 (12.1) 59 (18.1)   
 Urinary tract 62 (10.6) 10 (3.9) 52 (16)   
 Catheter 29 (5) 9 (3.5) 20 (6.1)   
 Peritonitis 31 (5.3) 12 (4.7) 19 (5.8)   
 Endocarditis 31 (5.3) 12 (4.7) 19 (5.8)   
 Bile duct infection 8 (1.4) 2 (0.8) 6 (1.8)   
 CNS 4 (0.7) 4 (1.6) 0 (0)   
 Skin and soft tissue 10 (1.7) 9 (3.5) 1 (0.3)   
 Gynecologic 2 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.3)   
 Other 98 (16.8) 38 (14.8) 60 (18.4)   
Medical historya
 Any cardiac comorbidity 400 (68.6) 147 (57.2) 253 (77.6) < 0.0001  
 Chronic heart failure 60 (10.3) 19 (7.4) 41 (12.6) 0.0544  
 Hypertension 293 (50.3) 105 (40.9) 188 (57.7) < 0.0001  
 Diabetes mellitus 160 (27.4) 57 (22.2) 103 (31.6) 0.0150  
 Any noncardiac comorbidity 414 (71) 167 (65) 247 (75.8) 0.0058  
 Chronic renal disease 76 (13.0) 19 (7.4) 57 (17.5) 0.0004  
 Active/recent malignant tumors 124 (21.3) 34 (13.2) 90 (27.6) < 0.0001  
 Smoking (active) 117 (20.1) 63 (24.5) 54 (16.6) 0.0302  
 COPD 89 (15.3) 37 (14.4) 52 (16.0) 0.6421  
 Any chronic medication 371 (63.6) 138 (53.7) 233 (71.5) < 0.0001  
 Immunosuppressive therapy 46 (7.9) 11 (4.3) 35 (10.7) 0.0066  
Physiological values at admission
 Temperature (°C) 37.2 [36.4–38.2] 37.4 [36.6–38.2] 37.1 [36.2–38.1] 0.0034  
 Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 75 [64–90] 81 [69–95] 72 [60–85] < 0.0001  
 Heart rate (beats/min) 104 [90–119] 100 [86–116] 105 [94–121] 0.0013  
 Central venous pressure (mmHg) 8 [5–13] 8 [5–13] 10 [6–14] 0.2419  
 Glasgow Coma Scale score 15 [14–15] 15 [14–15] 15 [14–15] 0.8161  
 Fluid balance (ml) 1928 [592–3552] 1425 [500–2699] 2311 [764–4202] < 0.0001  
 Urine output for 24 h (ml) 1000 [450–1900] 1276 [650–2050] 800 [300–1650] < 0.0001  
 PaO2/FiO2 228 [137–340] 233.5 [140–360] 223 [137–337] 0.4995  
Laboratory values at admission
 Lactate (mmol/L) 1.4 [1.0–2.2] 1.1 [0.8–1.6] 1.8 [1.2–2.7] < 0.0001 n = 562
 Arterial pH 7.38 [7.3–7.44] 7.42 [7.36–7.46] 7.36 [7.27–7.42] < 0.0001  
 Bilirubin (μmol/L) 11 [6–19] 10 [6.5–17] 12 [6–21] 0.1360  
 Platelets (109/L) 190 [121–275] 196 [136–279] 181 [104–271] 0.0583  
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.4 [0.9–2.2] 1 [0.7–1.4] 1.8 [1.2–2.9] < 0.0001  
 BUN or urea (mg/dl) 61 [37–107] 44 [28–69] 80 [50–127] < 0.0001  
 Hematocrit (%) 34 [29–38] 35 [30–38] 34 [29–38] 0.1010  
 White blood cell count (per mm3) 12,525 [7200–18,585] 13,000 [8475–18,075] 12,025 [5942–19,025] 0.0547  
 Troponin T, maximum on day 1 42 [18–158] 29 [14–124] 55 [25–176] 0.0230 n = 153
 Troponin I, maximum on day 1 69 [20–246] 40 [11–228] 99 [40–289] 0.0049 n = 186
 PCT, maximum on day 1 (ng/ml) 11.4 [1.9–49.8] 3.9 [0.9–19.5] 24 [6–84] < 0.0001 n = 330
 PCT, central laboratory (ng/ml) 10.2 [2.3–34.3] 3.7 [0.8–13.0] 18.2 [6.0–52.7] < 0.0001 n = 583
 BNP, maximum on day 1 257 [102–723] 187 [61–388] 473 [147–1154] 0.0004 n = 131
 NT-proBNP, maximum on day 1 4382 [1525–11,565] 2170 [497–6633] 6116 [2816–15,431] 0.0001 n = 117
Organ support at admission
 Mechanical ventilation     0.0739  
  Invasive 219 (37.6) 85 (33.1) 134 (41.1)   
  Noninvasive 131 (22.5) 67 (26.1) 64 (19.6)   
  None 233 (40.0) 105 (40.9) 128 (39.3)   
 Renal replacement therapy 49 (8.4) 8 (3.1) 41 (12.6) 0.0001  
 Vasopressors/inotropes at admission 349 (59.9) 109 (42.4) 240 (73.6) < 0.0001  
Organ dysfunction scores
 SOFA (points) 7 [5–10] 5 [3–8] 8 [6–11] < 0.0001 n = 509
 APACHE II (points) 15 [11–20] 14 [9–17] 18 [13–22] < 0.0001  
Length of stay (days)
 ICU 5 [2–10] 4 [2–8] 5 [2–10] 0.0554  
Mortality
 28-day, deaths (%) 127 (21.8) 30 (11.7) 97 (29.8) < 0.0001  
 90-day, deaths (%) 166 (28.5) 41 (16) 125 (38.3) < 0.0001  
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, bio-ADM Bioactive adrenomedullin, BNP Brain-derived natriuretic peptide, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, CNS Central nervous system, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICU Intensive care unit, NT-proBNP N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide, PaO2/FiO2 Ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen, PCT Procalcitonin, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. * p Value from nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis or chi-square test, respectively
  3. a Most common comorbidities reported individually