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Table 1 The elements of essential emergency and critical care (EECC) in hospitals

From: The global need for essential emergency and critical care

1 Identification of the critically ill: the proportion of critically ill patients who are identified
  1a The structures needed for a hospital to have the potential to identify the critically ill
   For example:
    Emergency department (ED) triage system
    Ward-based triage
    Trained ED and ward staff
    Pulse oximeter
  1b The clinical processes needed for the identification of the critically ill
   For example:
    ED triage is conducted
    Ward triage, for example early warning score (EWS), is conducted
2 Essential care of the critically ill: the proportion of those identified as critically ill who receive essential care
  2a The structures needed for a hospital to have the potential to provide essential care of the critically ill
   For example:
    Availability of ED resuscitation room
    Emergency drugs and equipment
    Oxygen
    Trained staff
    Guidelines for EECC
  2b The clinical processes needed for essential care of the critically ill
   For example:
    Use of appropriate airway actions
    Use of oxygen in hypoxia
    Use of intravenous fluids in shock
3 The proportion of all critically ill patients who receive EECC: the output of EECC
  For example:
   If 50% of all critically ill patients in a hospital are identified and 80% of these receive the correct essential care, then effective coverage of EECC is 40%
4 The mechanism through which EECC translates into increased survival of the critically ill
  For example:
   Airway maintained
   Breathing supported
   Circulation maintained
5 The desired outcome of EECC: survival of the critically ill
  For example:
   To a defined time point; for example, hospital discharge
  1. The examples are elements that could be included in EECC