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Table 2 Incidence and definition of each of the components of the primary outcome

From: Development and internal validation of the multivariable CIPHER (Collaborative Integrated Pregnancy High-dependency Estimate of Risk) clinical risk prediction model

  Definition Total (n = 769),
n (%)
Total women with primary outcome   127 (16.5%)
Maternal death Death during or within 42 days of delivery 59 (7.7%)
Maternal Morbidity Occurrence of one or more of the defined organ support measures below 97 (12.6%)
Organ support
 Respiratory Need for CPAP, BiPAP, or invasive ventilation 73
 Cardiovascular Need for use of inotropes or vasopressors 15
 Renal Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure 14
 Hepatic Liver transplantation. Other management of hepatic failure include ventilatory and circulatory support, management of elevated intracranial pressure and renal failure, medical therapies for hepatitis B virus (lamivudine); anticoagulation for Budd–Chiari syndrome. 21
 Hematological Massive transfusion of at least 5 units of blood products 60
 Neurological GCS score of less than 10 35
 Uterine Uncontrollable hemorrhage or infection leading to life-saving hysterectomy 16
  1. Abbreviations: BiPAP bilevel positive airway pressure, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale
  2. Maternal morbidities presented are not mutually exclusive and include those occurring in women who died. Morbidities have been grouped by organ system. All organ system outcomes required use of life-saving treatment for more than 7 days to meet outcome criteria with the exception of hematological and uterine support.