# Table 1 Cross-sectional characteristics between groups

Variable Total (n = 1953) Survivors (n = 1483) Nonsurvivors (n = 312) Lost to follow up (n = 158) p value
Study day with reference to ICU entry 7 (2, 19) 7 (2, 19) 6 (2, 15.5) 7 (3, 20) 0.131
Age 67 (51, 80) 66 (51, 80) 70 (57.75, 81) 69.5 (51, 81) 0.008
Sex (male, %) 1315 (0.67) 1011 (0.68) 197 (0.63) 107 (0.68) 0.216
Emergency room 664 (0.35) 509 (0.35) 95 (0.32) 60 (0.39) 0.008
Surgery 545 (0.29) 430 (0.3) 73 (0.24) 42 (0.27) 0.008
Internal medicine 362 (0.19) 255 (0.18) 81 (0.27) 26 (0.17) 0.008
Other ward 126 (0.07) 96 (0.07) 16 (0.05) 14 (0.09) 0.008
Other hospital 202 (0.11) 155 (0.11) 36 (0.12) 11 (0.07) 0.008
Past weight 65 (60, 75) 65 (59.45, 75) 65 (58, 74) 67 (60, 75) 0.443
Temporal weight 65 (55, 70) 65 (55, 70) 63 (54.2, 70) 65 (60, 70) 0.263
Height 170 (160, 175) 170 (160, 175) 167 (160, 173) 170 (160, 175) 0.034
CRP (mmol/l) 44.6 (16.8, 95.95) 40.05 (15.5, 87) 74.1 (29.85, 139.75) 43.75 (14.3, 98.53) 0
Lymphocyte (%) 10.7 (6.3, 17.6) 11.1 (6.8, 18.4) 8 (5.07, 13.85) 10.1 (6.3, 16.7) 0
Albumin (mg/dl) 31.7 (27.8, 35.3) 32 (28.1, 35.6) 30 (26.2, 34.2) 32 (28.55, 35.35) 0
Maximum BG (mmol/l) 10.1 (8, 13.1) 10 (7.9, 12.9) 11.1 (8.75, 14.85) 11.3 (8.3, 13.8) 0
Minimum BG (mmol/l) 6.4 (5.4, 7.8) 6.3 (5.4, 7.6) 6.8 (5.6, 8) 6.05 (5.2, 7.9) 0.054
Lactate (mmol/l) 1.4 (1, 2) 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 1.7 (1.2, 2.58) 1.4 (0.95, 1.85) 0
P/F ratio 260 (182, 348) 268 (196, 350) 227 (135, 320) 251 (160.5330) 0
Platelet (× 109/l) 176 (115, 250) 184 (124, 260) 146 (82.25, 206.25) 173 (108.75, 257) 0
Total bilirubin (mmol/l) 12 (7, 19) 12 (7, 18) 14 (8, 23) 11 (8, 18.5) 0.001
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 82 (72, 94) 83 (73, 94) 80 (70, 93) 81 (70.5, 94.5) 0.104
GCS score 12 (7, 15) 13 (7.75, 15) 9 (5, 15) 11 (6, 15) 0
Serum creatinine (mmol/l) 67 (48, 102.5) 64 (47, 94) 84 (55, 150) 79.5 (55, 181.25) 0
Urine output (ml/24 h) 1800 (1100, 2468) 1850 (1200, 2500) 1500 (770, 2322.5) 1800 (1007.5, 2400) 0
SOFA score 5 (3, 7) 5 (3, 7) 7 (5, 10) 6 (4, 8) 0
Body temperature (°C) 37 (36.7, 37.7) 37 (36.6, 37.6) 37.2 (36.7, 38) 37 (36.7, 37.52) 0.002
Heart rate (/min) 90 (80, 107) 90 (79, 105) 98 (85, 120) 91 (80, 105) 0
Respiratory rate (/min) 20 (17, 24) 20 (16, 24) 20 (18, 26) 20 (16, 23) 0.003
White blood cell (× 109/l) 10 (7.2, 13.7) 9.8 (7.1, 13) 11 (7.75, 15.3) 10.2 (7.5, 14.55) 0.001
APACHE II score 17 (12, 22) 16 (11, 21) 20 (15, 26) 19 (13, 23) 0
EN start day 1 (0, 3) 1 (0, 2.5) 1 (0, 2) 1 (0, 3.75) 0.099
EN in prior 24 h 1270 (0.66) 966 (0.67) 206 (0.66) 98 (0.65) 0.951
AGI 1 1440 (0.86) 1141 (0.88) 214 (0.78) 85 (0.79) 0
AGI 2–3 210 (0.12) 142 (0.11) 51 (0.18) 17 (0.16) 0
AGI 4 33 (0.02) 16 (0.01) 11 (0.04) 6 (0.06) 0
Total volume of EN (ml) 1000 (800, 1250) 1000 (830, 1300) 1000 (600, 1080) 1000 (1000, 1225) 0.203
Energy density of EN (kcal/ml) 1 (1, 1.5) 1 (1, 1.5) 1 (1, 1.3) 1 (1, 1.5) 0.112
EN warming 53 (0.04) 37 (0.04) 11 (0.06) 5 (0.06) 0.426
EN dilution 538 (0.47) 414 (0.48) 87 (0.46) 37 (0.47) 0.944
EN route
Gastric 1040 (0.85) 783 (0.84) 177 (0.88) 80 (0.91) 0.662
Jejunostomy 10 (0.01) 9 (0.01) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0.662
PEG/J 20 (0.02) 19 (0.02) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0.662
Postpyloric 127 (0.1) 101 (0.11) 19 (0.1) 7 (0.08) 0.662
Other 23 (0.02) 20 (0.02) 2 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0.662
EN delivery method
Continuous pump 1073 (0.88) 821 (0.89) 178 (0.88) 74 (0.85) 0.368
By gravity 35 (0.03) 27 (0.03) 6 (0.03) 2 (0.02) 0.368
Intermittent 86 (0.07) 59 (0.06) 17 (0.08) 10 (0.11) 0.368
Other 22 (0.02) 20 (0.02) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0.368
Position
Bed head ≥30° 1004 (0.83) 771 (0.83) 164 (0.82) 69 (0.79) 0.899
Bed head <  30° 194 (0.16) 143 (0.15) 34 (0.17) 17 (0.2) 0.899
Sitting 11 (0.01) 9 (0.01) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0.899
Other 7 (0.01) 6 (0.01) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0.899
Frequency of GRV measurement 2 (0, 4) 3 (0, 4) 2 (0, 4) 3 (0, 6) 0.353
Maximum GRV (ml) 0 (0, 50) 0 (0, 50) 10 (0, 52.5) 10 (0, 50) 0.517
Use of gastrointestinal decompression 334 (0.17) 229 (0.16) 76 (0.25) 29 (0.18) 0.001
Gastrointestinal decompression (ml) 100 (40, 250) 100 (40, 200) 100 (50, 300) 100 (30, 300) 0.854
Abdominal pressure (mmHg) 11.36 (8.27, 14.19) 11.03 (8.82, 14) 12.5 (9.43, 15.33) 7.35 (5.88, 10) 0.083
Duration of EN delivery (hours) 20 (15, 24) 20 (14, 24) 21 (12, 24) 24 (20, 24) 0.001
EN discontinuation due to intolerance (times)
0 997 (0.95) 775 (0.95) 161 (0.93) 61 (0.94) 0.318
1 31 (0.03) 21 (0.03) 6 (0.03) 4 (0.06) 0.318
2 20 (0.02) 15 (0.02) 5 (0.03) 0 (0) 0.318
3 2 (0) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.318
4 2 (0) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.318
5 1 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.318
EN discontinuation due to examination (times)
0 950 (0.9) 732 (0.9) 156 (0.91) 62 (0.95) 0.13
1 84 (0.08) 68 (0.08) 14 (0.08) 2 (0.03) 0.13
2 11 (0.01) 11 (0.01) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.13
3 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.02) 0.13
4 1 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.13
5 2 (0) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.13
6 2 (0) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.13
EN discontinuation due to other reasons (times)
0 983 (0.95) 753 (0.94) 166 (0.96) 64 (0.98) 0.99
1 32 (0.03) 27 (0.03) 4 (0.02) 1 (0.02) 0.99
2 8 (0.01) 7 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.99
3 4 (0) 3 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.99
5 6 (0.01) 5 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.99
6 3 (0) 3 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.99
Presence of nausea
No 1670 (0.86) 1303 (0.88) 260 (0.84) 107 (0.69) 0.000
Unable to judge 176 (0.09) 107 (0.07) 32 (0.1) 37 (0.24) 0.000
Yes 93 (0.05) 63 (0.04) 18 (0.06) 12 (0.08) 0.000
Presence of vomiting
No 1743 (0.9) 1338 (0.91) 272 (0.87) 133 (0.85) 0.108
Suspected 65 (0.03) 44 (0.03) 12 (0.04) 9 (0.06) 0.108
Unable to judge 29 (0.01) 21 (0.01) 5 (0.02) 3 (0.02) 0.108
Yes 105 (0.05) 70 (0.05) 23 (0.07) 12 (0.08) 0.108
Presence of aspiration
No 1809 (0.94) 1378 (0.94) 296 (0.95) 135 (0.87) 0.008
Suspected 87 (0.05) 59 (0.04) 11 (0.04) 17 (0.11) 0.008
Unable to judge 20 (0.01) 17 (0.01) 1 (0) 2 (0.01) 0.008
Yes 17 (0.01) 12 (0.01) 4 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0.008
Presence of abdominal pain
No 1436 (0.74) 1133 (0.77) 214 (0.69) 89 (0.57) 0
Persistent 77 (0.04) 51 (0.03) 18 (0.06) 8 (0.05) 0
Self resolution 93 (0.05) 66 (0.04) 15 (0.05) 12 (0.08) 0
Unable to judge 329 (0.17) 218 (0.15) 63 (0.2) 48 (0.31) 0
Presence of abdominal distension
Mild 420 (0.22) 311 (0.21) 66 (0.21) 43 (0.27) 0.000
No 1347 (0.69) 1055 (0.71) 199 (0.64) 93 (0.59) 0.000
Obvious 100 (0.05) 60 (0.04) 28 (0.09) 12 (0.08) 0.000
Severe 18 (0.01) 11 (0.01) 6 (0.02) 1 (0.01) 0.000
Unable to judge 62 (0.03) 40 (0.03) 13 (0.04) 9 (0.06) 0.000
Bowel sound
Hyper 37 (0.02) 27 (0.02) 7 (0.02) 3 (0.02) 0
Hypo 443 (0.23) 295 (0.2) 103 (0.33) 45 (0.29) 0
None 125 (0.06) 90 (0.06) 22 (0.07) 13 (0.08) 0
Normal 1321 (0.69) 1047 (0.72) 179 (0.58) 95 (0.61) 0
Stool
Yes 1103 (0.58) 840 (0.59) 175 (0.57) 88 (0.57) 0.469
No 579 (0.31) 436 (0.31) 98 (0.32) 45 (0.29) 0.469
No within 3 days 171 (0.09) 119 (0.08) 33 (0.11) 19 (0.12) 0.469
Colostomy 23 (0.01) 19 (0.01) 1 (0) 3 (0.02) 0.469
Incontinence 16 (0.01) 14 (0.01) 2 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.469
Stool frequency 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 2 (1, 2) 0.943
Stool volume (ml) 200 (100, 350) 200 (100, 350) 200 (100, 300) 200 (100, 350) 0.266
Stool description
Granular hard 18 (0.02) 15 (0.02) 2 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0.946
Loose 528 (0.52) 400 (0.52) 92 (0.56) 36 (0.52) 0.946
Shaped 2 (0) 2 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.946
Shaped soft 412 (0.41) 323 (0.42) 61 (0.37) 28 (0.41) 0.946
Soft 5 (0) 4 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.946
Watery 45 (0.04) 32 (0.04) 9 (0.05) 4 (0.06) 0.946
Stool blood
Black stool 16 (0.02) 9 (0.01) 7 (0.04) 0 (0) 0.174
Bloody stool 5 (0) 4 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.174
No 946 (0.94) 731 (0.95) 148 (0.91) 67 (0.96) 0.174
OB positive 38 (0.04) 28 (0.04) 7 (0.04) 3 (0.04) 0.174
1. Statistics expressed as number of patients (proportion) or median (first and third interquartile range)
2. AGI acute gastrointestinal injury, BG blood glucose, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, CRP C-reactive protein, EN enteral nutrition, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, GRV gastric residual volume, ICU intensive care unit, PEG/J percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, P/F parital pressure of oxygen/Fraction of inspired oxygen