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Table 1 Cross-sectional characteristics between groups

From: Enteral nutrition feeding in Chinese intensive care units: a cross-sectional study involving 116 hospitals

Variable Total (n = 1953) Survivors (n = 1483) Nonsurvivors (n = 312) Lost to follow up (n = 158) p value
 Study day with reference to ICU entry 7 (2, 19) 7 (2, 19) 6 (2, 15.5) 7 (3, 20) 0.131
 Age 67 (51, 80) 66 (51, 80) 70 (57.75, 81) 69.5 (51, 81) 0.008
 Sex (male, %) 1315 (0.67) 1011 (0.68) 197 (0.63) 107 (0.68) 0.216
Source of admission
 Emergency room 664 (0.35) 509 (0.35) 95 (0.32) 60 (0.39) 0.008
 Surgery 545 (0.29) 430 (0.3) 73 (0.24) 42 (0.27) 0.008
 Internal medicine 362 (0.19) 255 (0.18) 81 (0.27) 26 (0.17) 0.008
 Other ward 126 (0.07) 96 (0.07) 16 (0.05) 14 (0.09) 0.008
 Other hospital 202 (0.11) 155 (0.11) 36 (0.12) 11 (0.07) 0.008
 Past weight 65 (60, 75) 65 (59.45, 75) 65 (58, 74) 67 (60, 75) 0.443
 Temporal weight 65 (55, 70) 65 (55, 70) 63 (54.2, 70) 65 (60, 70) 0.263
 Height 170 (160, 175) 170 (160, 175) 167 (160, 173) 170 (160, 175) 0.034
 CRP (mmol/l) 44.6 (16.8, 95.95) 40.05 (15.5, 87) 74.1 (29.85, 139.75) 43.75 (14.3, 98.53) 0
 Lymphocyte (%) 10.7 (6.3, 17.6) 11.1 (6.8, 18.4) 8 (5.07, 13.85) 10.1 (6.3, 16.7) 0
 Albumin (mg/dl) 31.7 (27.8, 35.3) 32 (28.1, 35.6) 30 (26.2, 34.2) 32 (28.55, 35.35) 0
 Maximum BG (mmol/l) 10.1 (8, 13.1) 10 (7.9, 12.9) 11.1 (8.75, 14.85) 11.3 (8.3, 13.8) 0
 Minimum BG (mmol/l) 6.4 (5.4, 7.8) 6.3 (5.4, 7.6) 6.8 (5.6, 8) 6.05 (5.2, 7.9) 0.054
 Lactate (mmol/l) 1.4 (1, 2) 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 1.7 (1.2, 2.58) 1.4 (0.95, 1.85) 0
 P/F ratio 260 (182, 348) 268 (196, 350) 227 (135, 320) 251 (160.5330) 0
 Platelet (× 109/l) 176 (115, 250) 184 (124, 260) 146 (82.25, 206.25) 173 (108.75, 257) 0
 Total bilirubin (mmol/l) 12 (7, 19) 12 (7, 18) 14 (8, 23) 11 (8, 18.5) 0.001
 Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 82 (72, 94) 83 (73, 94) 80 (70, 93) 81 (70.5, 94.5) 0.104
 GCS score 12 (7, 15) 13 (7.75, 15) 9 (5, 15) 11 (6, 15) 0
 Serum creatinine (mmol/l) 67 (48, 102.5) 64 (47, 94) 84 (55, 150) 79.5 (55, 181.25) 0
 Urine output (ml/24 h) 1800 (1100, 2468) 1850 (1200, 2500) 1500 (770, 2322.5) 1800 (1007.5, 2400) 0
 SOFA score 5 (3, 7) 5 (3, 7) 7 (5, 10) 6 (4, 8) 0
 Body temperature (°C) 37 (36.7, 37.7) 37 (36.6, 37.6) 37.2 (36.7, 38) 37 (36.7, 37.52) 0.002
 Heart rate (/min) 90 (80, 107) 90 (79, 105) 98 (85, 120) 91 (80, 105) 0
 Respiratory rate (/min) 20 (17, 24) 20 (16, 24) 20 (18, 26) 20 (16, 23) 0.003
 White blood cell (× 109/l) 10 (7.2, 13.7) 9.8 (7.1, 13) 11 (7.75, 15.3) 10.2 (7.5, 14.55) 0.001
 APACHE II score 17 (12, 22) 16 (11, 21) 20 (15, 26) 19 (13, 23) 0
 EN start day 1 (0, 3) 1 (0, 2.5) 1 (0, 2) 1 (0, 3.75) 0.099
 EN in prior 24 h 1270 (0.66) 966 (0.67) 206 (0.66) 98 (0.65) 0.951
 AGI 1 1440 (0.86) 1141 (0.88) 214 (0.78) 85 (0.79) 0
 AGI 2–3 210 (0.12) 142 (0.11) 51 (0.18) 17 (0.16) 0
 AGI 4 33 (0.02) 16 (0.01) 11 (0.04) 6 (0.06) 0
 Total volume of EN (ml) 1000 (800, 1250) 1000 (830, 1300) 1000 (600, 1080) 1000 (1000, 1225) 0.203
 Energy density of EN (kcal/ml) 1 (1, 1.5) 1 (1, 1.5) 1 (1, 1.3) 1 (1, 1.5) 0.112
 EN warming 53 (0.04) 37 (0.04) 11 (0.06) 5 (0.06) 0.426
 EN dilution 538 (0.47) 414 (0.48) 87 (0.46) 37 (0.47) 0.944
EN route
 Gastric 1040 (0.85) 783 (0.84) 177 (0.88) 80 (0.91) 0.662
 Jejunostomy 10 (0.01) 9 (0.01) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0.662
 PEG/J 20 (0.02) 19 (0.02) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0.662
 Postpyloric 127 (0.1) 101 (0.11) 19 (0.1) 7 (0.08) 0.662
 Other 23 (0.02) 20 (0.02) 2 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0.662
EN delivery method
 Continuous pump 1073 (0.88) 821 (0.89) 178 (0.88) 74 (0.85) 0.368
 By gravity 35 (0.03) 27 (0.03) 6 (0.03) 2 (0.02) 0.368
 Intermittent 86 (0.07) 59 (0.06) 17 (0.08) 10 (0.11) 0.368
 Other 22 (0.02) 20 (0.02) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0.368
Position
 Bed head ≥30° 1004 (0.83) 771 (0.83) 164 (0.82) 69 (0.79) 0.899
 Bed head <  30° 194 (0.16) 143 (0.15) 34 (0.17) 17 (0.2) 0.899
 Sitting 11 (0.01) 9 (0.01) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0.899
 Other 7 (0.01) 6 (0.01) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0.899
 Frequency of GRV measurement 2 (0, 4) 3 (0, 4) 2 (0, 4) 3 (0, 6) 0.353
 Maximum GRV (ml) 0 (0, 50) 0 (0, 50) 10 (0, 52.5) 10 (0, 50) 0.517
 Use of gastrointestinal decompression 334 (0.17) 229 (0.16) 76 (0.25) 29 (0.18) 0.001
 Gastrointestinal decompression (ml) 100 (40, 250) 100 (40, 200) 100 (50, 300) 100 (30, 300) 0.854
 Abdominal pressure (mmHg) 11.36 (8.27, 14.19) 11.03 (8.82, 14) 12.5 (9.43, 15.33) 7.35 (5.88, 10) 0.083
 Duration of EN delivery (hours) 20 (15, 24) 20 (14, 24) 21 (12, 24) 24 (20, 24) 0.001
EN discontinuation due to intolerance (times)
 0 997 (0.95) 775 (0.95) 161 (0.93) 61 (0.94) 0.318
 1 31 (0.03) 21 (0.03) 6 (0.03) 4 (0.06) 0.318
 2 20 (0.02) 15 (0.02) 5 (0.03) 0 (0) 0.318
 3 2 (0) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.318
 4 2 (0) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.318
 5 1 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.318
EN discontinuation due to examination (times)
 0 950 (0.9) 732 (0.9) 156 (0.91) 62 (0.95) 0.13
 1 84 (0.08) 68 (0.08) 14 (0.08) 2 (0.03) 0.13
 2 11 (0.01) 11 (0.01) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.13
 3 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.02) 0.13
 4 1 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.13
 5 2 (0) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.13
 6 2 (0) 1 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.13
EN discontinuation due to other reasons (times)
 0 983 (0.95) 753 (0.94) 166 (0.96) 64 (0.98) 0.99
 1 32 (0.03) 27 (0.03) 4 (0.02) 1 (0.02) 0.99
 2 8 (0.01) 7 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.99
 3 4 (0) 3 (0) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.99
 5 6 (0.01) 5 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.99
 6 3 (0) 3 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.99
Presence of nausea
 No 1670 (0.86) 1303 (0.88) 260 (0.84) 107 (0.69) 0.000
 Unable to judge 176 (0.09) 107 (0.07) 32 (0.1) 37 (0.24) 0.000
 Yes 93 (0.05) 63 (0.04) 18 (0.06) 12 (0.08) 0.000
Presence of vomiting
 No 1743 (0.9) 1338 (0.91) 272 (0.87) 133 (0.85) 0.108
 Suspected 65 (0.03) 44 (0.03) 12 (0.04) 9 (0.06) 0.108
 Unable to judge 29 (0.01) 21 (0.01) 5 (0.02) 3 (0.02) 0.108
 Yes 105 (0.05) 70 (0.05) 23 (0.07) 12 (0.08) 0.108
Presence of aspiration
 No 1809 (0.94) 1378 (0.94) 296 (0.95) 135 (0.87) 0.008
 Suspected 87 (0.05) 59 (0.04) 11 (0.04) 17 (0.11) 0.008
 Unable to judge 20 (0.01) 17 (0.01) 1 (0) 2 (0.01) 0.008
 Yes 17 (0.01) 12 (0.01) 4 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0.008
Presence of abdominal pain
 No 1436 (0.74) 1133 (0.77) 214 (0.69) 89 (0.57) 0
 Persistent 77 (0.04) 51 (0.03) 18 (0.06) 8 (0.05) 0
 Self resolution 93 (0.05) 66 (0.04) 15 (0.05) 12 (0.08) 0
 Unable to judge 329 (0.17) 218 (0.15) 63 (0.2) 48 (0.31) 0
Presence of abdominal distension
 Mild 420 (0.22) 311 (0.21) 66 (0.21) 43 (0.27) 0.000
 No 1347 (0.69) 1055 (0.71) 199 (0.64) 93 (0.59) 0.000
 Obvious 100 (0.05) 60 (0.04) 28 (0.09) 12 (0.08) 0.000
 Severe 18 (0.01) 11 (0.01) 6 (0.02) 1 (0.01) 0.000
 Unable to judge 62 (0.03) 40 (0.03) 13 (0.04) 9 (0.06) 0.000
Bowel sound
 Hyper 37 (0.02) 27 (0.02) 7 (0.02) 3 (0.02) 0
 Hypo 443 (0.23) 295 (0.2) 103 (0.33) 45 (0.29) 0
 None 125 (0.06) 90 (0.06) 22 (0.07) 13 (0.08) 0
 Normal 1321 (0.69) 1047 (0.72) 179 (0.58) 95 (0.61) 0
Stool
 Yes 1103 (0.58) 840 (0.59) 175 (0.57) 88 (0.57) 0.469
 No 579 (0.31) 436 (0.31) 98 (0.32) 45 (0.29) 0.469
 No within 3 days 171 (0.09) 119 (0.08) 33 (0.11) 19 (0.12) 0.469
 Colostomy 23 (0.01) 19 (0.01) 1 (0) 3 (0.02) 0.469
 Incontinence 16 (0.01) 14 (0.01) 2 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.469
 Stool frequency 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 2 (1, 2) 0.943
 Stool volume (ml) 200 (100, 350) 200 (100, 350) 200 (100, 300) 200 (100, 350) 0.266
Stool description
 Granular hard 18 (0.02) 15 (0.02) 2 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0.946
 Loose 528 (0.52) 400 (0.52) 92 (0.56) 36 (0.52) 0.946
 Shaped 2 (0) 2 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.946
 Shaped soft 412 (0.41) 323 (0.42) 61 (0.37) 28 (0.41) 0.946
 Soft 5 (0) 4 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.946
 Watery 45 (0.04) 32 (0.04) 9 (0.05) 4 (0.06) 0.946
Stool blood
 Black stool 16 (0.02) 9 (0.01) 7 (0.04) 0 (0) 0.174
 Bloody stool 5 (0) 4 (0.01) 1 (0.01) 0 (0) 0.174
 No 946 (0.94) 731 (0.95) 148 (0.91) 67 (0.96) 0.174
 OB positive 38 (0.04) 28 (0.04) 7 (0.04) 3 (0.04) 0.174
  1. Statistics expressed as number of patients (proportion) or median (first and third interquartile range)
  2. AGI acute gastrointestinal injury, BG blood glucose, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, CRP C-reactive protein, EN enteral nutrition, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, GRV gastric residual volume, ICU intensive care unit, PEG/J percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, P/F parital pressure of oxygen/Fraction of inspired oxygen