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Table 1 Clinical parameters according to survival status after 28 days

From: Validation of CLIF-C ACLF score to define a threshold for futility of intensive care support for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

Parameter Alive (n = 103) Dead (n = 99) p Value
Male sex, n (%) 70 (68%) 66 (67%) p = 0.85
Age, years 50 ± 12 53 ± 11 p = 0.19
MELD score 23 ± 9 30 ± 10 p < 0.0001
Child-Pugh score 10.5 ± 1.7 11.9 ± 1.6 p < 0.0001
Child-Pugh classification, A/B/C, n (%)a 2/28/73 (2%/27%/71%) 0/8/90 (0%/8%/92%) p = 0.001
CLIF-OF score 11 (9–12) 13 (11–14) p < 0.0001
CLIF-C ACLF score 50.6 ± 7.3 58.4 ± 9.6 p < 0.0001
Number of organ failures, 1–3/4–6, n (%) 101/2 (98%/2%) 77/22 (78%/22%) p < 0.0001
Renal replacement, n (%) 26 (25%) 41 (41%) p = 0.02
HE classification, 0–2/3–4b, n (%) 91/12 (88%/12%) 78/21 (79%/21%) p = 0.07
Bilirubin, mg/dl; μmol/L 3.4 (1.6–9.1); 58 (27–156) 7.8 (3.5–15.5); 133 (60–265) p < 0.001
INR 1.8 (1.5–2.3) 2.2 (1.9–3.1) p < 0.0001
Albumin, g/dl; g/L 2.6 ± 0.7; 26 ± 7 2.5 ± 0.7; 25 ± 7 p = 0.23
Platelet count, 109/L 87 (57–137) 80 (53–119) p = 0.17
Sodium, mmol/L 138 ± 9 137 ± 10 p = 0.20
Serum creatinine, mg/dl; μmol/L 0.9 (0.7–1.6); 80 (62–142) 1.5 (0.9–2.4); 133 (80–212) p = 0.002
WBC count, 109/L 9.4 (6.3–15.1) 10.2 (6.3–16.5) p = 0.37
  1. Abbreviations: ACLF Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure, CLIF European Foundation for the study of chronic liver failure, HE Hepatic encephalopathy, INR International normalized ratio, MELD Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, OF Organ failure, WBC White blood cell
  2. Categorical variables are displayed in percent and continuous variables as mean ± SD (normally distributed data) or median (IQR) (nonparametric testing)
  3. Ascites grades: 0 = no ascites/slight ascites; 1 = moderate ascites; 2 = severe/refractory ascites
  4. aNo patient in ACLF 3 was allocated to Child-Pugh class A
  5. bClassification according to West Haven Criteria [25]