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Table 1 Patients seen by rapid response teams: demographics and interventions

From: The association of clinical frailty with outcomes of patients reviewed by rapid response teams: an international prospective observational cohort study

  Total UK Netherlands Denmark Australia Other
A. Demographics
 Number of patients 1133 722 199 124 59 29
 Number of centres 43 23 10 4 2 4
 Age (years) 67 (18) 67 (19) 67 (15) 71(13) 64 (21) 62 (18)
 Male 581 (51%) 364 (50%) 104 (52%) 70 (56%) 30 (51%) 13 (45%)
 Originally from home 950 (84%) 608 (84%) 179 (90%) 89 (72%) 49(83%) 24 (83%)
 Admitted under a medical specialty. 764 (67%) 500 (69%) 123 (62%) 92 (74%) 30 (51%) 19 (66%)
 Frailty level, percent that were ≥ 5a 40% 41% 32% 50% 29% 41%
 Patients per nurse, percent at 1–4/5–8/≥ 9 28/52/20 (%) 20/61/19 (%) 29/40/31 (%) 47/34/20 (%) 71/25/0 (%) 48/41/10 (%)
 Existing care limitation in place 208 (18%) 122 (17%) 34 (17%) 35 (28%) 11 (19%) 6 (21%)
 Mean NEWS (SD) 6.7 (3.2) 6.1 (3.1) 7.7 (3.0) 8.8 (302) 6.5 (3.3) 6.9 (2.8)
 Mean qSOFA (SD) 1.2 (0.8) 1.1 (0.8) 1.3 (0.8) 1.3 (0.8) 1.2 (0.8) 1.2 (0.7)
 On antibiotics prior to RRT call 648 (57%) 440 (61%) 108 (54%) 68 (55%) 18 (31%) 14 (55%)
B. Interventions
 On antibiotics following RRT call 659 (58%) 485 (67%) 119 (60%) 31 (25%) 8 (14%) 14 (48%)
 Transferred to ICU 339 (30%) 151 (21%) 120 (60%) 42 (34%) 15 (25%) 11 (38%)
 Mean RRT-ICU time (h) 9.2 12.5 3.4 6.3 24.8 13.1
 Needed surgical operation 21 (2%) 10 (1%) 6 (3%) 3 (2%) 2 (3%) 0
 Full code death 16 (1%) 12 (2%) 1 (1%) 2 (2%) 1 (2%) 0
 Received CPR 15 (1%) 11 (2%) 2 (1%) 1 (1%) 1 (2%) 0
 Call trigger persisted 253 (22%) 145 (20%) 24 (12%) 60 (48%) 17 (29%) 7 (24%)
 New limitation in care 188 (17%) 136 (19%) 16 (8%) 23 (19%) 9 (15%) 4 (14%)
 Repeat RRT call 95 (8%) 73 (10%) 9 (5%) 8 (6%) 3 (5%) 2 (7%)
  1. Demographics of study patients are shown in total and according to nation. The final column is the sum of countries contributing less than 25 patients each to the analysis, and includes Mexico (16 patients), Ireland (7 patients), Portugal (5 patients), and the USA (1 patient)
  2. RRT rapid response team, qSOFA quick sequential organ failure assessment, CFS clinical frailty scale, NEWS National Early Warning Score, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  3. aFrailty scores were determined using the Dalhousie clinical frailty scale and condensed into two intervals as noted in “Methods