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Table 1 Mechanism of action of antiepileptic drugs [113]

From: Antiepileptic drugs in critically ill patients

Antiepileptic drug agent Presumed mechanism of action
Brivaracetam SV2A modulation
Carbamazepine Na+ channel blockade
Clobazam GABA potentiation
Clonazapam GABA potentiation
Diazepam GABA potentiation
Fosphenytoin/phenytoin Na+ channel blockade
Lacosamide Enhanced slow inactivation of voltage-gated Na+ channels
Lamotrigine Na+ channel blockade
Levetiracetam SV2A modulation
Lorazepam GABA potentiation
Midazolam GABA potentiation
Oxcarbazepine Na+ channel blockade
Pentobarbital GABA potentiation
Perampanel AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist
Phenobarbital GABA potentiation
Topiramate Na+ channel blockade, GABA potentiation, AMPA/Kainate glutamate antagonist
Valproic acid GABA potentiation, glutamate (NMDA) inhibition, sodium channel and T-type calcium channel blockade
Zonisamide Na+ and Ca2+ channel blockade
  1. AMPA, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid, NMDA, N-methyl-d-aspartate, SV2A synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A