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Table 1 Main characteristics of the randomized and observational studies

From: The preventive effect of antiplatelet therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis

Author, year Study design Number of centers; country Study scale, total number (anti/non-anti) Study population Definition of antiplatelet therapy Definition of ARDS
Kor, 2016 [18] RCT 16; USA 390 (195/195) Patients aged 18 years or older with an elevated risk of developing ARDS (LIPS ≥4) Aspirin Berlin definition
Vincent, 1985 [30] RCT 1; Belgium 43 (16/17) Patients developed an episode of non-cardiogenic shock due to hemorrhage, trauma or sepsis Dipyridamole Severe hypoxemia and generalized lung infiltrates with PAWP <14 mmHg
Mazzeffi, 2015 [32] Retrospective cohort 1; USA 375 (181/194) Patients received aortic valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass Aspirin Berlin definition
Chen, 2015 [31] Prospective cohort 1; USA 1149 (287/862) Patients admitted to the ICU with a high risk of ARDS Aspirin AECC definition
Valerio, 2013 [11] Retrospective cohort 1; USA 651 (272/379) Patients admitted to the medical ICU with severe sepsis and septic shock on antiplatelet therapy before diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock. Aspirin, clopidogrel AECC definition
Kor, 2011 [33] Prospective cohort 20; USA, 2; Turkey 3855 (976/2879) Adult, non-surgical patients admitted to the hospital with at least one major risk factor for ALI Aspirin AECC definition
Erlich, 2011 [34] Retrospective cohort 1; USA 161 (79/82) Adult patients admitted to the ICU with at least one major risk factor for ALI Aspirin, clopidogrel bisulfate, ticlopidine, hydrochloride, cilostazol, dipyramidole, anagrelide, or persantine AECC definition
Ahmed, 2014 [36] Population-based, nested case-control 2; USA 828 (414/414)a Patients with hospital-acquired ARDS and matched controls Aspirin, abciximab, cilostazol, clopidogrel,dipyridamole, eptifibatide, ticlopidine AECC definition
Tuinman, 2012 [35] Nested case-control 1; Netherlands 218 (109/109)a Adult patients admitted to the medical-surgical ICU diagnosed with TRALI and matched controls Aspirin, clopidogrel The 2004 consensus definition of TRALI
  1. Abbreviations: RCT randomized controlled trial, anti/non-anti antiplatelet/non-antiplatelet, ICU intensive care unit, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, ALI acute lung injury, LIPS Lung Injury Prediction Score, AECC American-European Consensus Conference, PAWP pulmonary artery wedge pressure, TRALI transfusion-related acute lung injury
  2. aIn case-control studies, the numbers represent the total number of patients (number of cases/number of controls)