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Table 2 Healthcare costs split by major cost categories

From: Cost-effectiveness study of early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill children (PEPaNIC): preplanned secondary analysis of a multicentre randomised controlled trial

Cost category Early PN, € Late PN, € Mean difference (95% CI), € P value (t test)
Mean SD p25–p75 Mean SD p25–p75   
ICU hospitalisation 13.710 35.130 2.270–13.250 9.590 16.730 2.270–9.070 -4.120 (-7.590; -1.500) 0.003
Medication 1.810 7.430 250–1000 1.160 3.080 220–830 -650 (-1.360; 100) 0.03
Ventilator support 1.740 6.650 150–1.430 1.100 2.300 150–1.070 -640 (-1.260; -190) 0.03
Post-ICU hospitalisation 7.140 14.530 1.500–6.900 6.560 14.270 1.500–6.270 -580 (-2.100; 1.080) 0.24
Surgery 4.760 5.480 280–6.500 4.240 4.260 200–6.280 -520 (-1.080; 10) 0.03
Laboratory diagnostics 2.290 4.090 540–2.160 1.820 3.370 440–1.820 -460 (-860; -40) 0.01
PN 300 500 60–300 150 270 20–170 -150 (-200; -110) <0.001
Other diagnostics 690 2.020 80–550 610 1.610 80–430 -80 (-290; -110) 0.20
Consultations 470 690 40–680 440 630 30–680 -30 (-100; 50) 0.19
RRT and mechanical hemodynamic support 950 6.740 0–0 1.010 9.370 0–0 60 (-810; 1.020) 0.45
Total 33.860 57.610 11.080–34.720 26.680 35.850 10.090–28.830 -7.180 (-12.920; -1.880) 0.007
  1. Cost categories were ranked according to the mean difference between the treatment groups
  2. PN parenteral nutrition, CI confidence interval, ICU Intensive Care Unit, RRT renal replacement therapy, p25–p75 25th to 75th percentile