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Table 5 Model performance for all versions of APACHE

From: Performance of critical care prognostic scoring systems in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Study Scoring system Discrimination Calibration Sensitivity Specificity Accuracy
Khwannimit and Bhurayanontachai (2011) [51] APACHE II (recalibrated model) 0.936 (0.925–0.947) C statistic
χ2 = 16.1 (p = 0.09)
NR NR NR
H statistic χ2 = 14.1(p < 0.17)
Khwannimit and Bhurayanontachai (2011) [51] APACHE II 0.936 (0.925–0.947) C statistic χ2 = 104.2(p < 0.001) NR NR NR
H statistic χ2 = 113.1(p < 0.001)
Khan et al. (2015) [32] APACHE II (48 hours) 0.933 (0.873–0.992) NR 94.1% (DC > 9.5) 86.3% (DC > 9.5) NR
Godinjak et al. (2016) [31] APACHE II 0.920 (0.87–0.97) NR 74.5% (DC = 27.5) 93.4% (DC = 27.5) NR
Khawannimit and Geater (2007) [38] APACHE II 0.911 (0.891–0.93) C statistic χ2 = 66.65 (p < 0.001) 73.87% (95% CI = 65.23–75.66) 92% (95% CI = 89.66–93.20) 87% (95% CI = 85.47–89.13)
H statistic χ2 = 66.59 (p < 0.001)
Fadaizadeh et al. (2012) [67] APACHE II 0.897 (0.858–0.937) C statistic χ2 = 3:27 (p = 0:916) 90% (DC = 13.5) 75% (DC 13.5) NR
Juneja et al. (2012) [1] APACHE II 0.894 (0.864–0.925) χ2 = 7.959 (p = 0.438) 74.8% (DC >20.5) 84.9% (DC >20.5) NR
Soares et al. (2004) [40] APACHE II 0.888 (0.868–0.907) H statistic χ2 = 78.181 (p < 0.001) NR NR NR
Xing et al. (2015) [52] APACHE II 0.863 (0.804–0.923) χ2 = 3.486 (p = 0.900) NR NR NR
Sathe and Bapat (2014) [69] APACHE II 0.86 χ2 = 12.8 (p = 0.03) NR NR NR
Hosseini and Ramazani (2015) [80] APACHE II 0.857 (0.788–0.925) χ2 = 10.203 (p = 0.251) 96.6% 62.80% 79.70%
Naqvi et al. (2016) [33] APACHE II 0.835 χ2 = 3.199 (p = 0.866) NR NR NR
Gilani et al. (2014) [70] APACHE II 0.828 χ2 = 5.419 (p = 0.712) 88.2% (DC = 19) 65.5% (DC = 19) 27.9%
Hashmi et al. (2016) [77] APACHE II (automatic calculation using software) 0.827 (0.77–0.88) χ2 = 5.46 (p = 0.71) 55.71% 90.21% 78.87%
Hashmi et al. (2016) [77] APACHE II 0.823 (0.76–0.88) χ2 = 11.76 (p = 0.16) 51.42% 90.91% 77.9%
Chang et al. (2006) [64] APACHE II 0.82 χ2 = 9.8 (p =0.28) NR NR NR
Nouira et al. (1998) [66] APACHE II 0.82 C statistic χ2 = 25.95 (p < 0.001) NR NR NR
H statistic χ2 = 32.15 (p < 0.05)
Liu et al. (2016) [61] APACHE II 0.813 ± 0.055 NR 89.6% (DC ≥ 15.0) 74.8% (DC ≥ 15.0) NR
Ratanarat et al. (2005) [68] APACHE II 0.788 NR 80.9% (DC = 20) 63.2% (DC = 20) NR
Khan et al. (2015) [32] APACHE II 0.785 (0.69–0.88) NR 94.4% (DC > 9.5) 49% (DC > 9.5) NR
Nimgaonkar et al. (2004) [35] APACHE II 0.77 H statistic χ2 = 123.5 (p < 0.05) NR NR NR
Faruq et al. (2013) [37] APACHE II 0.75 (0.67–0.82) C statistic χ2 = 8.304 (p = 0.40) NR NR NR
Ahluwalia et al. (1999) [29] APACHE II 0.74 NR 93% 23.6% NR
Chiavone and Rasslan (2005) [65] APACHE II 0.729 (0.63–0.83) NR NR NR NR
Wilairatana et al. (1995) [82] APACHE II 0.723 NR 77.4% (DC = 19) 61.1% (DC = 19) 70.8%
Aggarwal et al. (2006) [7] APACHE II 0.713 C statistic χ2 = 119.3 (p < 0.001)
H statistic χ2 = 81.1 (p < 0.001)
48% (39.9–56.2)
(DC = 25%),
20.1% (14.1–27.3)
(DC = 50%),
3.2% (1.1–7.4) (DC = 75%)
84% (79.6–88.2)
(DC 25%),
96% (92.7–97.7)
(DC 50%),
97.7% (98.1–100)
(DC 75%)
71.9% (67.5–76)
(DC 25%),
69.9% (65.1–74.3)
(DC 50%),
66.8
(62.3–71.1) (DC 75%)
Halim et al. (2009) [75] APACHE II 0.694 χ2 = 10.627 (p = 0.014) 83% 55.2% 66%
Gupta and Arora (2004) [72] APACHE II 0.63 χ2 = 10.34 (p > 0.05) NR NR 89.7%
(DC 70%)
Sekulic et al. (2015) [48] APACHE II 0.623 χ2 = 3.05 (p =0.931) Presented as a figure 81.80% NR
Eapen et al. (1997) [30] APACHE II (VA) 0.6068 NR NR NR NR
Galal et al. (2013) [49] APACHE II 0.6 χ2 = 7.34, p = 0.39 93% (DC = 11) 24% (DC = 11) 55.2%
Evran et al. (2016) [47] APACHE II Presented as a figure NR NR NR 81.3%
Kiatboonsri and Charoenpan (1995) [45] APACHE II NR NR 60% (DC = 50%) 95% (DC = 50%) 83% (DC = 50%)
Juneja et al. (2012) [1] APACHE III 0.922 (0.894–0.949) χ2 = 3.674 (p = 0.885) 78.6%
(DC > 73)
86%
(DC > 73)
NR
Soares et al. (2004) [40] APACHE III 0.915 (0.898–0.933) H statistic
χ2 = 117.206 (p < 0.001)
NR NR NR
Shrestha et al. (2011) [73] APACHE III 0.895 (0.839–0.952) χ 2 = 16.904 (p = 0.031) 91% 73.97% 80.34%
Gilani et al. (2014) [70] APACHE III 0.78 χ2 = 8.442 (p = 0.392) 82.3% (DC = 24) 58% (DC = 24) NR
Wilairatana et al. (1995) [82] APACHE III 0.694 NR 79.8% (DC = 60) 66% (DC = 60) 72.4%
Juneja et al. (2012) [1] APACHE IV 0.928 (0.903–0.953) χ2 = 8.790 (p = 0.360) 93.2% (cut-off point > 12.5) 66.9% (cut-off point > 12.5) NR
Nassar et al. (2012) [42] APACHE IV 0.883 (0.874–0.891) C statistic χ2 = 53.7 (p < 0.01) NR NR NR
Xing et al. (2015) [52] APACHE IV 0.873 (0.813–0.934) χ2 = 3.756 (p = 0.878) NR NR NR
Hamza et al. (2009) [76] APACHE IV 0.845 (0.786–0.904) H statistic χ2 = 5.123 (p = 0.744) NR NR NR
Evran et al. (2016) [47] APACHE IV Presented as a figure NR NR NR 79.30%
  1. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, CI confidence interval, NR not reported, DC decision criteria