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Table 4 Cefepime-induced neurotoxicity – a clinical picture

From: Cefepime-induced neurotoxicity: a systematic review

Risk factors Signs and symptoms EEG characteristics Treatments
- Renal dysfunction - Critical illness - Altered BBB - Older age - Drug overdose - Altered mental status - Reduced consciousness - Confusion - Myoclonus - Aphasia - Agitation - Seizures - Abnormalities - Tri-phasic waves - Multi-focal sharp waves - Non-convulsive SE - Generalized slowing - Myoclonic SE - Cefepime discontinuation - Cefepime-free interval w/dose reduction - Hemodialysis - Benzodiazepinea
  1. EEG electroencephalography, BBB blood–brain barrier, SE status epilepticus
  2. aFor EEG abnormalities/seizure activity associated with toxicity