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Table 2 Clinical utility and practical considerations of functional measures in the ICU setting

From: Evaluating physical functioning in critical care: considerations for clinical practice and research

Outcome measure Type of assessment# Patient population with original development Equipment required* Scoring information (minimum to maximum score) Time required to physically undertake testing Training Rresources
ACIF [32] Comprehensive Acute neurological (including neurosurgery) [23] Access to 5 stairs; walking marker (distance) 20 items, 4 subcategories (0–1.00) 12 min No specified training package or video currently available, instructions and recording sheet available [23]
CPAx [33, 3436] Comprehensive General and trauma ICU [31] Handgrip dynamometera 10 items, each scored 0–5 (0 –50) 2–10 min Online 40–60 min free training (requires registration) at http://cpax.ocbmedia.com
CcFROM [37] Comprehensive General, neurosurgery and trauma ICU [33] Stopwatch 9 items, each scored 0–7 (0–63) 10–30 min Instructions and recording sheet available [33], no training package or video currently available
DEMMI [38] Comprehensive General hospitalized geriatric medical patients [24] Chair with 45 cm seat height with arm rests; stopwatch; pen (DEMMI item 13); walking marker (distance) 15 items, 5 subcategories, each scored 0–2 (0–100) 10–30 min Instructions and recording sheet available in supplementary [24] (no details specific to the ICU setting)
FSS-ICU [26, 31, 39, 4042] Comprehensive Medical ICU [37] Walking marker (distance) 5 items, each scored 0–7 (0–35) 10–30 min Detailed free instructions (registration required) at www.improvelto.com/, free training package including video available from primary author1
IMS [43, 26, 44, 45] Simple General ICU (medical, surgical, trauma) [28] None 1 item, score based on highest classification level (11 options) (0–10) <1 min Instructions available [28]
MMS [46] Simple General ICU (medical, surgical, trauma) [39] None 1 item, score based on highest classification level (7 options) (0–7) <1 min Instructions and recording sheet available [39]—further detailed instructions available from primary author2, no training package or video currently available
PFIT-s [26, 30, 47, 48] Comprehensive General ICU (medical, surgical) [43] Stopwatch; Borg RPE sheet (optional) 4 items, individual items scored 0–3 (0–10) 10–15 min Free training package, including video, available from primary author3
Perme Score [49, 50, 44] Comprehensive General ICU; cardiovascular ICU [46, 47] None 15 items, individual items scored 0–3 (0–32) 15–60 min No training package or video currently available. The scoring criteria and detailed instructions are available in the manuscript [46]
SOMS [51, 5254] Simple Surgical ICU [49] None 1 item, score based on highest classification level (5 options) (0–4) <1 min No training package or video currently available, scoring criteria available in manuscript [49]
SPPB [26] Comprehensive Geriatric, non-hospitalized Stopwatch; tape-measure (for 4-m course) 3 items, each item scored 0–4 (0–12) 5–10 min Free training via: https://www.irp.nia.nih.gov/branches/leps/sppb/index.htm and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XgiuciJXPm4 (no details specific for ICU)
  1. *Additional equipment required beyond standard hospital bed, chair, and gait aids
  2. #Type of assessment was defined into two categories: 1) “simple” involving observation of patient’s current ability (time to complete: <5 min); and 2) “Comprehensive” providing greater understanding of the impairments in physical functioning (time to complete: 10–15 min)
  3. 1Dale Needham, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. Contact email: dale.needham@jhmi.edu
  4. 2David Williams, Therapy Services, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust. Contact email: david.mcwilliams@uhb.nhs.uk
  5. 3Linda Denehy, Physiotherapy Department, The University of Melbourne. Contact email: l.denehy@unimelb.edu.au
  6. a A table is able to be downloaded at the end of the eLearning module which provides the gender/age values for handgrip strength in order to work out percentage grip strength which is required to complete the CPAx
  7. ACIF Acute Care Index of Function, CPAx Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment Tool, CcFROM Critical Care Functional Rehabilitation Outcome Measure, DEMMI De Morton Mobility Index, FSS-ICU Functional Status Score for the ICU, ICU intensive care unit, IMS ICU mobility scale, MMS, Perme Perme ICU Mobility Score, PFIT-s Physical Function in intensive care test scored, RPE rating of perceived exertion, SOMS Surgical Optimal Mobility Scale, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, MMS Manchester Mobility Score
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