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Table 1 ‘Motors’ of the lung and chest wall during positive and negative ventilation

From: The future of mechanical ventilation: lessons from the present and the past

  Positive pressure ventilation Negative pressure ventilation
Spontaneous Artificial
Respiratory system motor Energy from ventilator generating the airway pressure (P aw) Energy from muscular contraction generating muscular pressure (P musc) Energy from device generating negative pressure (P neg)
Lung motor Transpulmonary pressure (P L) generated by positive increase of P aw and pleural pressure (P pl) Transpulmonary pressure (P L) generated by decrease of pleural pressure (P pl) Transpulmonary pressure (P L) generated by decrease of pleural pressure (P pl)
Chest wall motor Pleural pressure (P pl = P awP L) Wall pressurea (P W = P muscP pl) Wall pressurea (P W = P negP pl)
  1. aWall pressure is the component of total muscular (or externally applied negative pressure) needed to expand the chest wall itself