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Table 5 Selected toxicities of antineoplastic pharmacotherapy and antiangiogenetic pathomechanisms (according to [39, 40, 44, 45, 50])

From: New drugs, new toxicities: severe side effects of modern targeted and immunotherapy of cancer and their management

Bevacizumab
→ Arterial hypertension
 Decreased endothelial production of nitric oxide with consecutive vasoconstriction
 Cholesterol embolization syndrome
→ Congestive heart failure
 Disruption of physiological coronary angiogenesis
 Impaired response to pressure overload
→ Arterial thromboembolism
 Reduction of anti-inflammatory effects and atherosclerotic instability
 Impaired proliferation and repair of endothelial cells
 Endothelial cell dysfunction and exposure of subendothelial collagen
 Direct platelet activation
 Inhibition of collateral circulation
Dasatinib
→ Pulmonary hypertension
 Reduced hypoxic vasoconstriction
 Induction of pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis
 Induction of reactive oxygen species and consecutive endothelial dysfunction
Dasatinib, nilotinib, ponatinib
→ Cardiovascular events
 Metabolic effects: hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia
 Interaction with VEGF receptors
 Inhibition of KIT and PDGF receptor
 Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 1
  1. VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, KIT stem cell factor receptor, PDGF platelet derived growth factor