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Table 2 Retinal fluorescein angiography: retinal changes, ocular pressure, tissue perfusion parameters, and inflammatory markers

From: Retinal arterial blood flow and retinal changes in patients with sepsis: preliminary study using fluorescein angiography

  All patients (N = 31) Patients with short arterial filling time <8.28 seconds (n = 15) Patients with prolonged arterial filling time >8.28 seconds (n = 16) P value
Intraocular pressure at angiography, mmHg 15.7 [13.3–19.5] 14.0 [12.5–15.5] 17.8 [14.7–22.1] 0.031
Retinal changes, n (%) 16 (51.6) 3 (20) 13 (81.3) 0.001
Mean blood glucose level, mmol/L 7.8 [6.8–10.4] 8.9 [7.7–10.2] 8.1 [7.2–9.4] 0.36
CRP at angiography, mg/L 160 [114–316] 254 [146–366] 139 [77.7–224.5] 0.011
CRP, highest before angiography, mg/L 264 [149–380] 307 [161.7–435.7] 187 [99.5–363.5] 0.104
PCT at angiography, μg/L 3.87 [1.96–12.2] 0.387 [1.96–12.2] 7.06 [1.9–31.8] 0.28
PCT, maximum before angiography, μg/L 9.4 [2.4–36.6] 11.6 [6.7–30.3] 6.7 [0.96–61.9] 0.669
Platelets, lowest before angiography, ×109/L 170 [124–219] 184.5 [166–270.7] 146 [98.5–202.3] 0.056
Platelets, lowest at angiography, ×109/L 149 [90–185] 167 [123–209] 96 [84–178] 0.07
PT-INR, highest before angiography 1.3 [1.15–1.9] 1.2 [1.1–1.6] 1.45 [1.27–2.2] 0.025
PT-INR, highest at angiography 1.35 [1.2–1.67] 1.25 [1.17–1.45] 1.45 [1.2–2.1] 0.09
Noradrenaline dose, highest before angiography, μg/kg/minute 0.2 [0.06–0.53] 0.23 [0.073–0.64] 0.167 [0–0.38] 0.47
Noradrenaline dose during angiography, μg/kg/minute 0.04 [0–0.24] 0.0242 [0–0.61] 0.050 [0.005–0.23] 0.71
Cardiac index, lowest before angiography, L/minute/m2 2.4 [1.7–3] 3.1 [2.5–3.2] 2.1 [1.7–2.5] 0.042
Cardiac index, during angiography, L/minute/m2 2.3 [1.9–2.7] 2.6 [2.2–3.1] 2.1 [1.7–2.4] 0.039
MAP at angiography, mmHg 73.9 [68–88] 78.5 [69.5–88.8] 69.6 [65.5–89.2] 0.49
MAP below 65 mmHg before angiography, minutes 13.6 [8–33] 11 [4.5–37.5] 23 [8–33] 0.470
Lactate angiography, mmol/L 1.9 [1.3–2.5] 1.75 [1.31–2.5] 1.98 [1.34–2.54] 0.62
Lactate, highest before angiography, mmol/L 3.4 [1.9–8.6] 2.97 [2.2–6.7] 6.05 [1.87–10.03] 0.61
BE lowest before angiography, mmol/L −7.8 [−13.5 to −4.8] −7.8 [−12.9 to −3.3] −7.9 [−14.1 to −7] 0.467
BE during angiography, mmol/L −4.3 [−7.9 to 0.375] −3.2 [−7.5 to 0] −4.9 [−11.1 to 0.9] 0.57
PaO2, mmHg 12.3 [11.4–14.5] 11.4 [10.3–13.8] 12.2 [9.9–13] 0.66
PaCO2, mmHg 4.9 [4.5–6] 5.2 [4.6–6] 5.1 [4.2–5.9] 0.77
PaO2/FiO2 ratio, mmHg 31.5 [23.6–37.1] 34.6 [23.8–47.9] 34.2 [23.8–43.7] 0.95
  1. Abbreviations: CRP, C-reactive protein, PCT, Procalcitonin, PT-INR, Prothrombin time international normalized ratio, MAP, Mean arterial pressure, BE, Base excess, PaCO 2 , Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio Ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fraction of inspired oxygen