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Table 1 Patient characteristics and outcomes

From: Cardiac biomarkers are associated with maximum stage of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a prospective analysis

Parameter All (n = 138) No AKI (n = 65) Any AKI (n = 73) p value
Baseline characteristics
 Age, median (IQR) 65.5 (49–76) 61 (41–72) 69 (54–77) 0.006
 Male gender, n (%) 80 (58.0) 41 (63.1) 39 (53.4) 0.252
Comorbidities
 IHD, n (%) 22 (15.9) 11 (16.9) 11 (15.1) 0.766
 Hypertension, n (%) 49 (35.5) 21 (32.3) 28 (38.4) 0.459
Admission diagnosis category, n (%)
 Acute kidney injury 8 (5.8) 8 (11.0)  
 Cardiac emergency 6 (4.3) 3 (4.6) 3 (4.1)  
 Gastrointestinal emergency 13 (9.4) 8 (12.3) 5 (6.8)  
 Liver failure 3 (2.1) 3 (4.1)  
 Metabolic emergency 4 (2.9) 4 (5.5)  
 Neurological emergency/overdose 13 (9.4) 12 (18.5) 1 (1.4)  
 Post surgery 25 (18.1) 13 (20) 12 (16.4)  
 Respiratory failure 27 (19.6) 17 (26.1) 10 (13.7)  
 Sepsis 39 (28.3) 12 (18.5) 27 (37.0)  
Parameters on admission to ICU
 APACHE II, mean (SD) 19.4 (6.3) 16.2 (5.1) 22.2 (5.9) <0.001
 SOFA score, mean (SD) 7.5 (3.7) 6.0 (3.0) 8.9 (3.8) <0.001
 Lactate (μmol/L), median (IQR) 1.7 (1.1–3.3) 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 1.9 (1.2–4.5) 0.005
 Bilirubin (μmol/L), median (IQR) 10 (7–19) 10 (6–14) 12 (7–30) 0.031
 Sepsis, n (%) 39 (28.3) 12 (18.5) 27 (37.0) 0.016
Parameters in first 24 hours in ICU
 Cumulative fluid balance (ml), median (IQR) 3196 (1606–5166) 2561 (1088–4023) 3730 (2316–5800) 0.002
 No AKI, n (%) 77 (55.8) 77 (55.8)  
 Any stage of AKI, n (%)     
  1 14 (10.1) 14 (10.1)  
  2 14 (10.1) 14 (10.1)  
  3 without RRT 5 (3.6) 5 (3.6)  
  3 with RRT 28 (20.3) 28 (20.3)  
Outcomes
 MI (in ICU), n (%) 20 (14.5) 9 (13.9) 11 (15.1) 0.839
 Maximum stage of AKI stage during stay in ICU, n (%)     
  1 13 (9.4) 13 (9.4)  
  2 12 (8.7) 12 (8.7)  
  3 without RRT 8 (5.8) 8 (5.8)  
  3 with RRT 40 (29.0) 40 (29.0)  
  1. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, AKI acute kidney injury, ICU intensive care unit, IHD ischaemic heart disease, IQR interquartile range, MI myocardial infarction, RRT renal replacement therapy, SD standard deviation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment