Skip to main content

Table 2 ICU events and outcomes of ECMO-treated massive PE patients according to 90-day survival status

From: Life-threatening massive pulmonary embolism rescued by venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Event/outcome All patients (n = 17) Non-survivors (n = 9) Survivors (n = 8) p
SAPS II at ICU admission 78 (45–95) 83 (71–95) 58 (45–91) 0.04
Shock onset-to-ECMO interval, h 3 (1–24) 3 (1–24) 3.5 (1–12) 0.92
Extracorporeal blood flow during the 1st 24 h, L/min 3.3 (3.0–4.2) 3.3 (3.2–4.2) 3.2 (3.0–3.9) 0.19
SOFA score at ECMO cannulation 12 (8–19) 15 (11–19) 12 (8–15) 0.11
Inotrope score at ECMO cannulation, μg/kg/min 100 (2–760) 75 (2–730) 143 (92–760) 0.17
Inotrope score after 24 h of ECMO, μg/kg/min 50 (0–660) 75 (41–660) 6 (0–51) 0.001
pH ECMO-day 1 7.42 (7.19–7.69) 7.40 (7.19–7.57)a 7.44 (7.32–7.69) 0.79
Blood lactate ECMO-day 1, mmol/L 3.2 (1.1–12.3) 4.5 (1.1–12.3)a 2.3 (1.1–3.5) 0.17
SOFA score
 ECMO-day 1 14 (11–18) 14 (13–18) 12 (11–16) 0.04
 ECMO-day 3 13 (8–18) 15 (12–18) 13 (8–15) 0.03
 ECMO-day 7 6 (1–19) 10 (7–13) 6 (1–19) 0.29
In-ICU complications
 Hemorrhage ≤ GUSTO 2 15 (88) 8 (89) 7 (88) 0.92
 RRT 13 (76) 6 (67) 7 (88) 0.31
 Stroke 4 (24) 1 (11) 3 (38) 0.2
 Surgical wound infection 2 (12) 0 2 (25)
 Arterial ischemia 1 (6) 0 1 (12)
Packed red-cell units transfused 4 (0–29) 4 (0–6) 9 (0–29) 0.7
Fresh-frozen plasma units transfused 5 (0–11) 3 (0–8) 8 (0–11) 0.7
Tracheotomy 2 (12) 0 2 (25)
ECMO duration, days 4 (1–12) 3 (1–13) 4 (3–11) 0.28
MV duration, days 10 (1–43) 3 (1–24) 13 (1–43) 0.03
ICU LOS, days 10 (1–91) 3 (1–24) 17 (7–91) 0.009
Hospital LOS, days 22 (1–135) 6 (1–36) 45 (22–135) 0.004
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as n (%) and continuous variables as median (range)
  2. ICU intensive care unit, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, PE pulmonary embolism, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, GUSTO Global Utilization of Streptokinase and TPA for Occluded arteries, RRT renal replacement therapy, MV mechanical ventilation, LOS length of stay
  3. aThree patients died within less than 24 h on ECMO