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Table 1 Classification and recommendations for the three antiarrhythmic drugs

From: Antiarrhythmic drugs for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with refractory ventricular fibrillation

  Amiodarone Lidocaine Nifekalant
Vaughan Williams classification Class III Class Ib Class III
2015 ILCOR treatment recommendation [5] Suggest use of amiodarone in adult patients with refractory VF/pVT to improve rates of ROSC. Suggest use of lidocaine as an alternative to amiodarone in adult patients with refractory VF/pVT. Suggest use of nifekalant as an alternative to amiodarone in adult patients with refractory VF/pVT.
Level of recommendation Weak recommendation, moderate‐quality evidence Weak recommendation, very‐low‐quality evidence Weak recommendation, very‐low‐quality evidence
  1. ILCOR International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, VF ventricular fibrillation, pVT pulseless ventricular tachycardia