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Table 3 Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models predicting 1-year post-discharge mortality

From: The impact of post-operative sepsis on mortality after hospital discharge among elective surgical patients: a population-based cohort study

Characteristics Non-sepsis (n = 142,646) Sepsis (n = 1857)
Mortality, % HR (95% CI) Mortality, % HR (95% CI)
Year of admission
 2007 4.1 1.00 16.7 1.00
 2008 4.1 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 10.9 0.70 (0.43–1.14)
 2009 3.9 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 11.8 0.76 (0.48–1.21)
 2010 3.7 1.05 (0.92–1.19) 16.1 1.04 (0.76–1.43)
 2011 3.7 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 14 0.88 (0.60–1.31)
 2012 3.5 0.98 (0.89–1.09) 11.8 0.78 (0.48–1.28)
Age groups
 ≥18 years to <35 years 0.5 1.00 6.6 1.00
 ≥35 years to <55 years 0.9 1.99** (1.35–2.93) 7.5 1.10 (0.40–3.04)
 ≥55 years to <75 years 2.1 5.46** (3.77–7.92) 10.8 1.60 (0.76–3.38)
 ≥75 years 9.2 20.0** (13.5–29.6) 22.1 3.50** (1.56–7.87)
Sex
 Male 4.3 1.00 13.4 1.00
 Female 3.4 0.76** (0.71–0.82) 13.7 1.05 (0.81–1.37)
Country of birth
 Australia and New Zealand 4.1 1.00 13.9 1.00
 United Kingdom, United States and Canada 4.4 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 11.7 0.66 (0.36–1.19)
 Non-English-speaking Europe 4.1 0.83** (0.74–0.93) 17.3 0.97 (0.69–1.36)
 North Africa 1.5 0.50** (0.44–0.58) 7.7 0.52 (0.18–1.53)
 Asia 1.9 0.68** (0.54–0.85) 10.8 0.80 (0.37–1.72)
 Others 1.7 0.66** (0.53–0.83) 6.5 0.47 (0.18–1.21)
 Unknown 5.6 1.02 (0.81–1.28) 17.2 1.45 (0.76–2.78)
Marital status
 Married 2.9 1.00 12.4 1.00
 Single 4.8 1.37** (1.28–1.46) 14.9 1.10 (0.89–1.36)
 Unknown 6.4 1.67** (1.37–2.03) 12.8 0.93 (0.39–2.24)
Severity of illness/co-morbidity
 Normal 2.5 1.00 9.2 1.00
 Moderate 7.5 2.04** (1.88–2.21) 9.9 0.96 (0.61–1.50)
 Severe 10.1 2.34** (2.01–2.72) 20.2 2.05** (1.45–2.89)
 Very severe 15.5 3.34** (2.99–3.72) 24.6 2.17** (1.49–3.17)
SEIFA quartiles
 First quartile (most disadvantaged) 4.0 1.00 14.9 1.00
 Second quartile 3.7 0.93 (0.85–1.00) 13.2 0.91 (0.65–1.26)
 Third quartile 3.5 0.94 (0.83–1.06) 11.8 0.71* (0.52–0.97)
 Fourth quartile (most advantaged) 4.3 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 13.1 0.68 (0.35–1.32)
 Unknown 2.4 0.64* (0.41–1.00) 20.8 1.59 (0.90–2.84)
Local health district of facility
 Metropolitan 3.7 1.00 13.8 1.00
 Rural and regional NSW 4.3 1.06 (0.88–1.27) 12.6 0.81 (0.60–1.10)
 Others 3.1 0.72** (0.64–0.81) 12.9 1.08 (0.70–1.67)
Peer hospital group
 Principal referral group 3.9 1.00 12.4 1.00
 Ungrouped acute 2.2 0.59** (0.44–0.80) 0
 Major metropolitan and non-metropolitan 4 1.20 (1.00–1.45) 17.1 1.53* (1.10–2.11)
 District groups 1 and 2 2.7 1.10 (0.85–1.44) 12.2 1.04 (0.40–2.73)
Major surgical procedure
 CABG 2.0 1.00 7.0 1.00
 Abdominal surgery 2.8 1.91** (1.50–2.43) 8.3 1.25 (0.61–2.56)
 EVAR 7.3 2.40** (1.92–3.00) 25.0 3.79** (1.39–10.3)
 Total hip replacement 1.5 0.80 (0.62–1.03) 11.1 1.51 (0.47–4.78)
 Total knee replacement 0.8 0.46** (0.36–0.59) 5.3 0.68 (0.19–2.42)
 Other 6.1 3.13** (2.50–3.91) 19.0 2.69** (1.38–5.22)
Length of stay   1.01** (1.01–1.01)   1.00** (1.00–1.01)
  1. Abbreviations: SEIFA Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas, CABG Coronary artery bypass graft, EVAR Endovascular aneurysm repair, NSW New South Wales
  2. P value for trend year; P < 0.001 for non-sepsis group; P = 0.588 for sepsis group
  3. *P ≤ 0.05
  4. **P ≤ 0.01