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Table 4 Associations of HDL-C and LDL-C with sepsis rates stratified by statin use

From: Cholesterol levels and long-term rates of community-acquired sepsis

Variable Total N Sepsis events, Sepsis incidence (per 1000 person-years), Models for sepsis hazard
Unadjusted, Adjusteda,
N (%) IR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Statin non-users
 HDL-C quartile      
  Q1 (5–41 mg/dl) 5233 315 (6.0) 9.6 (8.6–10.7) 1.73 (1.43–2.09) 1.09 (0.88–1.36)
  Q2 (42–50 mg/dl) 4540 223 (4.9) 7.9 (6.9–9.0) 1.43 (1.16–1.76) 1.11 (0.89–1.37)
  Q3 (51–62 mg/dl) 4751 201 (4.2) 6.8 (5.9–7.8) 1.21 (0.98–1.49) 1.06 (0.86–1.31)
  Q4 (63–199 mg/dl) 4837 169 (3.5) 5.5 (4.8–6.4) Reference Reference
    Trend p value <0.001 0.44
 LDL-C quartile      
  Q1 (3–99 mg/dl) 4816 278 (5.8) 9.4 (8.3–10.5) 1.54 (1.28–1.86) 1.32 (1.10–1.60)
  Q2 (100–120 mg/dl) 4810 231 (4.8) 7.6 (6.7–8.7) 1.29 (1.06–1.57) 1.19 (0.98–1.46)
  Q3 (121–143 mg/dl) 4842 212 (4.4) 6.9 (6.0–7.9) 1.13 (0.93–1.37) 1.11 (0.91–1.36)
  Q4 (144–388 mg/dl) 4619 169 (3.7) 5.8 (5.0–6.8) Reference Reference
    Trend p value <0.001 0.003
Statin users
 HDL-C quartile      
  Q1 (11–39 mg/dl) 2304 170 (7.4) 11.8 (10.2–13.7) 1.37 (1.08–1.73) 0.89 (0.69–1.17)
  Q2 (40–47 mg/dl) 2274 134 (5.9) 9.6 (8.1–11.4) 1.11 (0.87–1.43) 0.87 (0.67–1.13)
  Q3 (48–57 mg/dl) 2163 119 (5.5) 8.8 (7.3–10.5) 1.03 (0.80–1.33) 0.93 (0.72–1.20)
  Q4 (58–156 mg/dl) 2178 119 (5.5) 8.7 (7.3–10.4) Reference Reference
    Trend p value 0.006 0.39
 LDL-C quartile
  Q1 (11–76 mg/dl) 2210 175 (7.9) 13.1 (11.3–15.1) 2.00 (1.55–2.59) 1.50 (1.14–1.96)
  Q2 (77–93 mg/dl) 2304 142 (6.2) 9.9 (8.4–11.7) 1.55 (1.19–2.03) 1.36 (1.03–1.78)
  Q3 (94–111 mg/dl) 2091 127 (6.1) 9.6 (8.1–11.4) 1.49 (1.13–1.96) 1.38 (1.04–1.81)
  Q4 (112–315 mg/dl) 2191 81 (3.7) 5.9 (4.7–7.3) Reference Reference
    Trend p value <0.001 0.008
  1. Total of 29,690 REGARDS participants. HRs estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression and represent pooled estimates from multiple imputation
  2. p values represent tests for linear trends across quartiles
  3. aAdjusted for demographics, health behaviors, chronic medical conditions, biomarkers, and functional status measures. Demographics = age, gender, race, region, income, and education; health behaviors = smoking status and alcohol use; chronic medical conditions = cancer, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, stroke, and Morisky medication adherence index; biomarkers = hs-CRP, Cystatin C, ACR, and eGFR; functional status measures = weakness, exhaustion, and low physical activity
  4. HR hazard ratio, IR incidence rate, CI confidence interval, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ACR albumin–creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate