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Fig. 2 | Critical Care

Fig. 2

From: Immunomodulation after ischemic stroke: potential mechanisms and implications for therapy

Fig. 2

In the ischemic penumbra, excitotoxicity and peri-infarct depolarization lead to cell death by necrosis or apoptosis. Microglia, astrocytes, and neurons express receptors which can be activated or inhibited by some therapies, thus resulting in neuroprotection in this area of penumbra. Solid blue lines represent stimulation of the receptors. Dashed blue lines represent the effects resulting from stimulation. Solid green lines represent inhibition of the receptor. Dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1), dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), α2 adrenergic receptor (ARα2), β2 adrenergic receptor (ARβ2), acetylcholine (Ach), muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-18

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