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Table 2 Quality of included randomized controlled trials using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias

From: Lower versus higher dose of enteral caloric intake in adult critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Sequence generation Concealment Blinding Incomplete outcome data Selective outcome reporting Other sources of bias Study center Percentage of patients lost to follow up Source of study funding
Montecalvo et al., 1992 [54] Computer generated Not described No No No No Multiple ICUs, two centers 0 Not reported
Kearns et al., 2000 [55] Computer generated Sealed envelope No No No No Single 0 Ross Laboratories and the California Institute for Medical Research (partly)
Chen et al., 2006 [56] Not described Not described No No No No Two ICUs, one center 0 National Science Council
Nguyen et al., 2007 [57] Computer generated Yes Yes No No No Single 0 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia (partly)
Desachy et al., 2008 [58] Not described Not described No No No No Two ICUs 0 Not reported
Hsu et al., 2009 [59] Computer generated Yes No No No No Single 0 Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital
White et al., 2009 [60] Computer generated Yes (sealed opaque envelope) No Yes No No Single 0 Not reported
Montejo et al., 2010 [61] Not described Not described No No No No Single 0 Not reported
Acosta-Escribano et al., 2010 [62] Central randomization Yes No Yes No No Multicenter 0 Novartis Consumer Health (Spain)
Arabi et al., 2011 [14] Computer generated Yes No No No No Single 0 King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Singer et al., 2011 [63] Computer generated Yes No No No No Single 0 Not reported
Rice et al., 2011 [15] Not described Yes (sealed opaque envelope) No No No No Two ICUs, single center 0 National Institutes of Health (partly)
Rice et al., 2012 [16] Web-based system Sealed envelope No No No No Multicenter 0 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Huang et al., 2012 [64] Software-generated randomization Not described No Yes Hospital mortality data were missing for some patients No No Single Hospital mortality data missing for 4/101 patients (4 %) Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital
Reignier et al., 2013 [65] Computer-generated, interactive, web-response system Yes No No No No Multicenter 0 The Centre Hospitalier Departemental de la Vendee
Rugeles et al., 2013 [23] Computer-generated random allocations No
Sealed envelopes were used but one investigator knew patient allocation
No
One investigator knew patient allocation.
Yes
Mortality was reported as one of the secondary endpoints but was not reported
Yes Yes
Many patients were excluded from analysis with uncertainty if exclusion criteria were determined a priori.
Single 0 Lafrancol S.A
Peake et al., 2014 [66] Web-based system Centralized, web-based randomization schedule Yes No No No Multicenter One patient in the intervention group was withdrawn and one patient in the control group was lost to follow up by day 90. The Royal Adelaide Hospital and the Australian, New Zealand College of Anaesthetists and Fresenius Kabi
Charles et al., 2014 [22] Random number sequence Opaque security envelopes No No No Yes
The trial was stopped before achieving the target sample size because of slow enrolment
Single 0 The NIH
Braunschweig et al., 2015 [67] Computer-generated random allocations Sealed envelopes No No No Yes
The trial was stopped before achieving the target sample size because of higher mortality, a secondary outcome, in the intervention group
Single 0 The NIH/NHLBI
Arabi et al., 2015 [68] Computer-generated random allocations (blocks of variable size Opaque sealed envelopes No No No No Multicenter 9 patients lost to follow up, 3 in the intervention group and 3 in the control group King Abdullah International Medical Research Center
Doig et al., 2015 [69] Computer-generated random allocations (blocks of variable size) Secure central randomization web server No No No No Multicenter 4 patients lost to follow up (90-day interview), 2 in each group. National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia