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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, behavior during ICU stay, and outcome of 174 patients with severe CAP, according to the microbiological diagnosis

From: Viral-bacterial coinfection affects the presentation and alters the prognosis of severe community-acquired pneumonia

Patients All patients
(n = 174)
Bacterial group
(n = 46)
Viral group
(n = 53)
Mixed group
(n = 45)
No etiology group
(n = 30)
p valuea
Age, y 63 [53;75] 64 [53;75] 64 [54;75] 63 [54;75] 66 [57;78] 0.85
Sex, male 132 (75.9) 37 (80.4) 38 (71.7) 33 (73.3) 24 (80) 0.69
Weight, kg 71 [62;82] 70 [60;80] 71 [64;84] 70 [60;77] 75 [62;83] 0.64
Smoking 53 (31.7) 16 (37.2) 16 (30.8) 13 (30.2) 8 (27.6) 0.83
McCabe score > 1 38 (21.8) 7 (15.2) 13 (24.5) 12 (26.7) 6 (20) 0.56
WHO performance status > 0 53 (33.5) 10 (22.7) 19 (41.3) 14 (35.9) 10 (34.5) 0.30
Chronic immunosuppression 57 (32.8) 16 (34.8) 21 (39.6) 14 (31.1) 6 (20) 0.32
 HIV 14 (8) 7 (15.2) 3 (5.7) 3 (6.7) 1 (3.3) 0.20
 Steroid therapy 19 (10.9) 2 (4.3) 10 (18.9) 6 (13.3) 1 (3.3) 0.06
 Other immunosuppressive 21 (12.4) 3 (6.5) 10 (20) 7 (15.6) 1 (3.4) 0.08
 Solid organ transplantation 14 (8) 2 (4.3) 5 (9.4) 6 (13.3) 1 (3.3) 0.31
 Cancer 15 (8.6) 6 (13) 4 (7.5) 2 (4.4) 3 (10) 0.51
Chronic diseaseb 86 (49.4) 20 (43.5) 34 (64.2) 20 (44.4) 12 (40) 0.08
Coronary artery disease 27 (15.5) 6 (13) 9 (17) 9 (20) 3 (10) 0.64
HCAPc 86 (49.4) 22 (47.8) 31 (58.5) 22 (48.9) 11 (36.7) 0.29
Transfer from another wardd 58 (33.3) 14 (30.4) 19 (35.8) 17 (37.8) 8 (26.7) 0.72
Antibiotics before ICU admissione 77 (44.3) 15 (32.6) 30 (56.6) 19 (42.2) 13 (43.3) 0.12
Organ failures on ICU admission       
 Glasgow < 15 42 (24.1) 14 (30.4) 11 (20.8) 11 (24.4) 6 (20) 0.66
 Shock 32 (18.4) 14 (30.4) 3 (5.7) 11 (24.4) 4 (13.3) <0.01
 PaO2/FIO2 ratio 174 [130;230] 173 [130;229] 172 [122;227] 165 [134;228] 200 [165;252] 0.22
SAPS II score 38 [27;55] 39 [32;60] 36 [26;48] 46 [34;59] 33 [18;46] 0.02
PSI score at hospital referral 106 [78;130] 110 [84;152] 98 [82;128] 119 [98;126] 89 [70;121] 0.12
PSI class IV-V at hospital referral 114 (65.5) 31 (67.4) 33 (62.3) 36 (80) 14 (46.7) 0.03
Organ supports during ICU stay       
 Noninvasive ventilation 55 (31.8) 14 (30.4) 21 (40.4) 12 (26.7) 8 (26.7) 0.44
 Mechanical ventilation 98 (56.3) 28 (60.9) 22 (41.5) 36 (80) 12 (40) <0.01
 ARDS 60 (34.5) 17 (37) 13 (24.5) 22 (48.9) 8 (26.7) 0.06
 Dialysis 37 (21.3) 10 (21.7) 10 (18.9) 12 (26.7) 5 (16.7) 0.72
 Vasopressors 80 (46.2) 22 (47.8) 19 (36.5) 27 (60) 12 (40) 0.12
Outcome       
Length of mechanical ventilation, d 9 [5;13] 6.5 [3;12.5] 7 [4;12] 9 [6;14] 10 [7.5;17.5] 0.34
Follow-up duration, df 15 [10 ; 29] 14 [5;23] 18 [12;32] 16 [11;31] 14.5 [12;19] 0.25
Hospital mortality 30 (17.2) 6 (13) 6 (11.3) 13 (28.9) 5 (16.7) 0.10
Complicated courseg 74 (42.5) 18 (39.1) 15 (28.3) 31 (68.9) 10 (33.3) <0.01
  1. Data are presented as median [first through third quartiles] or number (%)
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, CAP community-acquired pneumonia; HCAP health care-associated pneumonia, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, ICU intensive care unit, PSI Pneumonia Severity Index, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiologic Score, WHO World Health Organization.
  3. a p values refer to differences between bacterial, viral, mixed, and no etiology groups in univariate logistic regression
  4. bChronic disease included chronic dialysis, mellitus diabetes requiring oral medication and/or insulin, chronic heart failure classified NYHA 3 or 4, cirrhosis, chronic respiratory failure requiring long-term oxygen therapy, and chronic immunosuppression
  5. cPneumonia was considered health care-associated (HCAP) in the presence of at least one of the following conditions: hospitalization for ≥ 2 days in the preceding 90 days, institutionalization, chronic dialysis, and chronic immunosuppression
  6. dTransfer from another ward included transfers from another ICU and from the medical wards
  7. eAntibiotics before ICU admission referred to any administration of antibiotics, whatever drug regimen, before the ICU referral, i.e., in emergency departments or in other medical wards
  8. fThe follow-up duration was defined as the time between the date of the mPCR and the date of hospital discharge. If the patient was deceased in hospital, the date of death was considered hospital discharge. If the patient was not deceased in hospital and the date of hospital discharge was not available, the date of ICU discharge was considered hospital discharge gComplicated course was defined as hospital death and/or mechanical ventilation > 7 days