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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of risk factors for acute kidney injury, mortality and unfavourable neurological outcome in resuscitated, comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients

From: Urine biomarkers give early prediction of acute kidney injury and outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

  Covariates Levels Adjusted OR (95 % CI) p value* AuROC (95 % CI) with biomarker AuROC (95 % CI) without biomarker p value**
Risk factors for acute kidney injurya
 Model I Witnessed CAc No/yes 2.27 (0.85–6.07) 0.104 0.747 (0.667-0.817) 0.719 (0.649-0.790) 0.084
 (n = 195) SOFA score day 0 ≥/<10 3.08 (1.46–6.48) 0.003    
Urea day 0 ≥/<6.7 mmol/L 2.63 (1.40–4.95) 0.003    
Admission cystatin C ≥/<291/ng/mL 2.42 (2.29–4.54) 0.006    
 Model II Witnessed CAc No/yes 2.15 (0.80–5.77) 0.128 0.752 (0.682-0.821) 0.719 (0.649-0.790 0.046
 (n = 195) SOFA score day 0 ≥/<10 2.94 (1.39–6.21) 0.005    
Urea day 0 ≥/<6.7 mmol/L 2.63 (1.40–4.95) 0.003    
Admission NGAL ≥/<219 ng/mL 2.59 (1.37–4.89) 0.004    
 Model III SOFA score day 0 ≥/<10 2.76 (1.25–6.10) 0.012 0.725 (0.644-0.806)   
 (n = 164) Urea day 0 ≥/<6.7 mmol/L 1.98 (1.00–3.93) 0.049    
Cystatin C day 3 ≥/<59 ng/mL 2.87 (1.45–5.70) 0.003    
 Model IV SOFA score day 0 ≥/<10 2.83 (1.24–6.50) 0.014 0.774 (0.700-0.848)   
 (n = 164) Urea day 0 ≥/<6.7 mmol/L 2.82 (1.12–4.66) 0.024    
NGAL day 3 ≥/<110 ng/mL 5.46 (2.65–11.24) <0.001    
Risk factors for mortalitya
 Model V Initial VT/VFc No/yes 4.70 (2.27–9.74) <0.001 0.811 (0.751-0.872) 0.790 (0.727-0.852) 0.141
 (n = 195) AKI within 3 days Yes/no 2.83 (1.40–5.69) 0.004    
SOFA sore day 0 ≥/<10 3.40 (1.47–7.88) 0.004    
Admission cystatin C ≥/<291 ng/mL 2.88 (1.44–5.77) 0.003    
 Model VI Initial VT/VFc No/yes 4.11 (1.99–8.53) <0.001 0.812 (0.751-0.873) 0.790 (0.727-0.852) 0.131
 (n = 195) AKI within 3 days Yes/no 2.86 (1.43–5.74) 0.003    
SOFA sore day 0 ≥/<10 3.28 (1.43–7.50) 0.005    
Admission NGAL ≥/<219 ng/mL 2.87 (1.44–5.72) 0.003    
 Model VII Initial VT/VFc No/yes 3.13 (1.45–6.72) 0.004 0.784 (0.713-0.854)   
 (n = 164) AKI within 3 days Yes/no 2.44 (1.16–5.13) 0.019    
SOFA sore day 0 ≥/<10 2.67 (1.14–6.23) 0.024    
Cystatin C day 3 ≥/<59 ng/mL 2.45 (1.17–5.13) 0.018    
 Model VIII Initial VT/VFc No/yes 3.12 (1.45–6.69) 0.004 0.785 (0.713-0.857)   
 (n = 164) AKI within 3 days Yes/no 2.06 (0.95–4.47) 0.069    
SOFA score day 0 ≥/<10 2.88 (1.22–6.84) 0.016    
NGAL day 3 ≥/<110 ng/mL 2.85 (1.32–6.14) 0.008    
Risk factors for unfavourable neurological outcomea
 Model IX Initial VT/VFc No/yes 5.07 (2.40–10.74) <0.001 0.819 (0.759-0.878) 0.810 (0.750-0.870) 0.264
 (n = 195) AKI within 3 days Yes/no 2.67 (1.32–5.40) 0.006    
BE day 0 </≥–7 mmol/L 2.07 (1.00–4.26) 0.050    
SOFA score day 0 ≥/<10 2.45 (1.08–5.57) 0.032    
Admission cystatin C ≥/<291 ng/mL 2.06 (1.00–4.25) 0.050    
 Model Xb Initial VT/VFc No/yes 4.92 (2.35–10.38) <0.001   0.810 (0.750-0.871)  
 (n = 195) AKI within 3 days Yes/no 3.03 (1.52–6.02) 0.002    
BE day 0 </≥–7 mmol/L 2.56 (1.29–5.09) 0.007    
SOFA score day 0 ≥/<10 2.48 (1.11–5.54) 0.027    
 Model XI Initial VT/VFc No/yes 3.42 (1.58–7.39) 0.002 0.778 (0.707-0.849)   
 (n = 164) AKI within 3 days Yes/no 2.45 (1.17–5.12) 0.017    
BE day 0 </≥–7 mmol/L 2.53 (1.24–5.18) 0.011    
Cystatin C day 3 ≥/<59 ng/mL 2.25 (1.09–4.65) 0.029    
 Model XII Initial VT/VFc No/yes 3.77 (1.69–8.38) 0.001 0.797 (0.729-0.866)   
 (n = 164) Fluid balance day 0 ≥/<4.45 L/day 2.12 (1.05–4.66) 0.037    
Urea day 0 ≥/<6.7 mmol/L 2.13 (1.03–4.43) 0.043    
BE day 0 </≥–7 mmol/L 2.21 (1.06–4.62) 0.035    
NGAL day 3 ≥/<110 ng/mL 3.41 (1.65–7.06) 0.001    
  1. aTIMP-2 × IGFBP7 had p values above 0.05 for predicting acute kidney injury, mortality, and unfavorable neurological outcome at all time points
  2. bNGAL at day 0 had a p value above 0.05 for predicting poor neurological outcome
  3. cData from some patients are missing
  4. Data are from multivariate logistic regression analysis
  5. *p values for the adjusted odds ratio; **p values from comparing the AuROC with and without biomarkers
  6. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, AuROC area under the curve in receiver operating characteristics analysis, CA cardiac arrest, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, VF/VT ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia, AKI acute kidney injury, BE base excess