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Table 1 Univariate analysis of risk factors for acute kidney injury in resuscitated, comatose out-of- hospital cardiac arrest patients

From: Urine biomarkers give early prediction of acute kidney injury and outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

  Without AKI
(n = 107)
With AKI
(n = 88)
Risk factor for AKI Crude OR (95 % CI) for AKI p value
Baseline data
 Age, years 60.0 ± 13.7 60.2 ± 13.4 Age ≥60 years 0.90 (0.51–1.58) 0.710
 Weight, kga (n = 166) 80.0 (75.0–90.0) 85.0 (80.0–94.5) Weight ≥85 kg 1.73 (0.93–3.20) 0.083
 Male sex 92 (86.0) 73 (83.0) Female sex 1.26 (0.58–2.75) 0.560
 Witnessed CAa (n = 194) 98 (92.5) 71 (80.7) Unwitnessed CA 2.93 (1.20–7.17) 0.015
 Bystander CPR 96 (89.7) 75 (85.2) Not bystander CPR 1.51 (0.64–3.57) 0.342
 ROSC time, mina (n = 158) 22.0 (15.0–29.0) 30.0 (20.0–42.5) Time to ROSC ≥25 min 2.16 (1.13–4.11) 0.018
 Initial VF/VTa (n = 193) 76 (71.0) 52 (59.1) Not initial VF/VT 1.71 (0.93–3.11) 0.081
 SAPS II, score 68.2 ± 10.1 73.1 ± 10.3 SAPS II score ≥69 1.92 (1.08–3.42) 0.026
Admission day
 Diuresis, L/day 2.26 (1.82–3.28) 1.81 (1.43–2.45) Diuresis <1.93 L/day 3.69 (2.04–6.70) <0.001
 Fluid balance, L/day 4.01 (2.79–5.77) 4.74 (3.50–6.30) Fluid balance ≥4.45 L/day 1.49 (0.84–2.62) 0.169
 S-Creatinine, μmol/L 94.0 (81.3–105.0) 107.0 (94.0–140.0) S-Creatinine ≥101 μmol/L 5.18 (2.80–9.59) <0.001
 S-Urea; mmol/L 6.3 (5.2–7.5) 7.3 (5.8–9.6) S-Urea ≥6.7 mmol/L 2.74 (1.53–4.91) 0.001
 B-HCO3 , mmol/L 20.7 (18.3–22.8) 18.9 (16.4–21.2) B-HCO3 <19.0 mmol/L 1.95 (1.08–3.52) 0.025
 B-BE, mmol/L –5.6 (–9.1 to –3.6) –8.9 (–12.4 to –6.1) B-BE < –7.0 mmol/L 2.68 (1.50–4.80) 0.001
 B-Lactate, mmol/L 3.0 (1.7–6.5) 5.2 (2.9–9.3) B-Lactate ≥4.1 mmol/L 1.92 (1.08–3.39) 0.025
 SOFA, score 10.0 (9.0–11.0) 11.0 (10.0–12.0) SOFA score ≥10 3.73 (1.84–7.55) <0.001
Urine biomarkers (n = 195 at admission and n = 164 at day 3)
 Admission cystatin C, ng/mL 160 (59–440) 639 (155–1871) Admission cystatin C ≥291 ng/mL 3.08 (1.71–5.54) <0.001
 Day 3 cystatin C, ng/mLa 45 (17–109) 182 (32–929) Day 3 cystatin C ≥59 ng/mL 3.36 (1.74–6.50) <0.001
 Admission NGAL, ng/mL 106 (37–427) 439 (98–1286) Admission NGAL ≥219 ng/mL 3.41 (1.88–6.16) <0.001
 Day 3 NGAL, ng/mLa 63 (26–145) 287 (109–903) Day 3 NGAL ≥110 ng/mL 5.65 (2.81–11.30) <0.001
 Admission TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 0.25 (0.04–0.85) 0.65 (0.14–2.26) Admission TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 ≥ 0.36 2.09 (1.18–3.70) 0.012
 Day 3 TIMP-2 × IGFBP7a 0.15 (0.06–0.32) 0.24 (0.10–2.49) Day 3 TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 ≥ 0.18 1.76 (0.93–3.31) 0.079
Outcome
 Hospital RRT 0 (0.0) 8 (9.1) Treatment with RRT   n.a.
 Dead at 6 months 32 (29.9) 56 (63.6) Death   n.a.
 PNO at 6 months 37 (34.6) 59 (67.0) Poor neurological outcome   n.a.
  1. aData from some patients are missing
  2. Categorical data are presented as number (percent), continuous data with skewed distribution as median (interquartile range), and continuous data with normal distribution or mean (± standard deviation)
  3. Presented p values are from univariate Pearson’s Chi square analysis
  4. AKI acute kidney injury, B whole blood, BE base excess, CA cardiac arrest, CI confidence interval, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, HCO 3 bicarbonate, IGFBP7 insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7, n.a. not applicable, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, OR odds ratio, PNO poor neurological outcome defined as cerebral performance category 3–5, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, RRT renal replacement therapy, S serum, SAPS simplified acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, TIMP-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, VF/VT ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia